Developments in imaging technology, genetics, brain chemistry and computing that raise the prospect of genuine breakthroughs across a range of debilitating neurological disorders - and promise fresh insights into the workings of the mind and mental illness.
The BBC's science correspondent Tom Feilden asks what neuroscience has to say about what it means to be human.
The Professor of Neuroscience at Oxford University, Colin Blakemore, told him: "Until recently, neuroscience has not been delivering very clear messages about human behaviour. But we're getting very close to that."
Blakemore said we could soon have "some kind of mechanistic description" of what makes the brain makes humans feel emotions such as love, hate, fear and anger.
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