Brailsford beat off the challenge of Manchester United manager Sir Alex Ferguson and Wales coach Warren Gatland to take the honour, which was presented by former England cricket captain Michael Vaughan and Dame Kelly Holmes.
The Olympic cycling team pipped Manchester United, the British Olympic squad and the Welsh rugby union team to the team prize.
Beijing gold medallist Victoria Pendleton accepted the team award on behalf of the remainder of the squad.
Brailsford wins coach of the year award
"This is an honour for us to be here and this is an award for all of the squad, including the support team who give as much as we do," she said.
Pendleton's sentiments were echoed by Chris Hoy, who won three gold medals in Beijing to become the most successful male cyclist in Olympic history.
"It's been a tremendous year with success at both the World Championships and the Olympics," he added.
"To be part of such a successful team is a real honour for me."
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