A penalty kick is awarded after the opposition have committed an offence.
The referee will award the penalty from the spot where the offence occurred.
A team has the choice of kicking for goal (usually, a place kick, though the rules say a drop kick or punt are also legal) or drop kicking/punting for touch.
If the penalty is not too far from the opposition's goalposts, a kick for goal is likely.
A successful kick - through the opposition's goalposts, above the crossbar - is worth three points.
If the team opt to kick for touch, they retain the throw in at the line out.
Some players opt to take a quick tap penalty, playing the ball to themselves while their opponents are still reeling.
The only stipulation is that the ball must be kicked "a visible distance".
A team awarded a penalty may also choose a scrum instead.
The rules for placing and timing of a penalty kick are the same as for a conversion.
However, unlike a conversion attempt, the opposition may not charge a penalty kick and must stand still with their arms by their sides until the kick is complete.
If the kicker indicates to the referee the intention to kick at goal, the
kicker must kick at goal.