Nadolo was withdrawn from Saturday's squad to face Bath
Exeter will face a Rugby Football Union disciplinary hearing on 27 April into the registration of Nemani Nadolo.
The Premiership club have admitted to an "administrative error", which saw them include three overseas players in their squad against Leeds on 3 April.
Nadolo featured in the 27-22 defeat at Headingley alongside Hoani Tui and Ignacio Mieres.
The RFU panel will decide if the club breached competition regulations by including more than two foreign stars.
Fijian-born Nadolo, 23, registered for the Devon club on an Australian passport when he joined from Bourgoin in January.
Under the RFU's rules, Premiership clubs' match-day squads can only have two players from outside of Europe, Africa, the Caribbean and the Pacific Islands - a limit they exceeded with the inclusion of Nadolo alongside Tui (New Zealand) and Mieres (Argentina).
The club could face a points penalty, though the RFU has not discussed any sanction at this stage.
Exeter Chiefs chief executive Tony Rowe said: "Unfortunately during our Premiership fixture away to Leeds, Exeter inadvertently included three foreign players within our match-day squad, when official rules permit us to only include two players.
"This was partly down to a clerical error on the club's part and we have now been asked by the RFU to submit to them our reasons for fielding three foreign players.
"We are aware this will need to go before a disciplinary panel, which is likely to be held later this week, and we intend to cooperate fully with the authorities over this matter."
"As a club we hope the authorities take into account our previous good record and there was no intention on our part to try and gain any kind of unfair advantage."