Gemma Spofforth and Lizzie Simmonds qualified for the final of the women's 100m backstroke following impressive swims.
Spofforth, 21, was second fastest overall in a time of 58.74 seconds but will have a fight to win gold after Russia's Zueva set a new world record of 58.48, shattering Zimbabwean Kirsty Coventry's previous mark of 58.77.
Simmonds, 19, set a time of 59.55 to finish joint seventh fastest.
"I'm pleased with how it went from a centre lane," she told BBC Sport.
"I'm enjoying being here, having such a great time and I'm swimming well."
Loughborough swimmer Liam Tancock made the men's 100m backstroke final after coming eighth fastest overall.
Tancock set a time of 53.12 to finish third in his semi-final ahead of world record holder, American Aaron Peirsol, who surprisingly missed out.
Replay - Kukors breaks 200m medley record (UK users only)
The highlight of the night was arguably 15-year-old Sjostrom's performance in the 100m fly.
The Swedish sensation had already set a new mark of 56.44 in Sunday's semi-finals but obliterated that with a time of 56.06 in the final.
It was all the more impressive because the teenager was down in seventh at one stage.
"I don't know what is happening right now," she said. "t's unbelievable.
"This is my best year but I have many years in front of me. I can do better."
Just as outstanding was American Soni's world record time of one minute 4.84 seconds in the 100m breaststroke semi-final, which broke Australian Leisel Jones' two-year-old record of 1:05.09.
And in the last race of a memorable night in balmy Rome, Kukors edged out Olympic champion Stephanie Rice to win gold and set her second world record in two days - the 11th overall of the championships.
The American touched home in 2:06.15 to surpass the mark of 2:07.03 she set in beating Rice in Sunday's semi-finals.
In the men's events, Australia's Rickard produced one of the widest smiles of the night after he sped to 58.58 to win the 100m breaststroke, trumping Japan's Kosuke Kitajima's previous mark of 58.91.
In the other men's final, Serbia's Milorad Cavic was the shock winner of the 50m butterfly, with world record holder Rafael Munoz taking bronze.
Meanwhile, eight-time Beijing Games gold medallist Michael Phelps stayed on course for his second gold of the championships, finishing third fastest in the semi-finals of the 400m freestyle.
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