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Wednesday, 25 September, 2002, 12:57 GMT 13:57 UK
The inter-war years
BBC Sport Online details the four America's Cup races contested between the First and Second World Wars.

Racing resumed after the Great War under Universal Rule conditions.

Nathaniel Herreshoff devised a formula involving sail length, area and displacement to which all Cup craft had to conform in an effort to reduce the size and costs involved in putting a challenge together.

By 1930 the rule had been modified and J-Class boats were the order of the day.


1920 - Resolute 3-2 Shamrock IV

The 1920 meeting had originally been scheduled for 1914 but was postponed because of the Great War.

It was worth the wait.

The hosts finally faced a real challenge and Shamrock - described by designer Charles Nicholson as an "ugly duckling" - took a two race lead.

Just one more win would have seen Sir Thomas Lipton realise his dream.

But Nathaniel Herreshoff altered the sail set up overnight and the experience of the defenders told with Charles Francis Adam becoming the first amateur skipper to win.


1930 - Enterprise 4-0 Shamrock V

Sir Thomas Lipton's fifth and final challenge floundered against Harold S. Vanderbilt's first.

Vanderbilt acted as skipper and mastermind on a defence that included his trusty right-hand man W Sherman Hoyt.

The team also included designer Starling Burgess, son of former Cup designer Edward.

Lipton's last venture was outclassed by both the boat and crew of the hosts.


1934 - Rainbow 4-2 Endeavour

Charles Nicholson remedied the design faults in Shamrock V to good effect and his design was widely applauded.

Thomas Sopwith took over from Sir Thomas Lipton and found immediate reward.

After a dispute over pay Sopwith set off across the Atlantic with an amateur crew that took a surprise 2-0 lead in the series.

But while trailing in the third race Harold S Vanderbilt handed the hot seat to his tactician W Sherman Hoyt, the race turned confirming Hoyt as one of the great yachtsmen of his time.


1937 - Ranger 4-0 Endeavour II

Thomas Sopwith's second boat, again designed by Charles Nicholson, was even better than his first but he had the misfortune to come up against the greatest boat in the history of the Cup.

Ranger was a revolutionary tank-tested design by Starling Burgess and Olin Stephens which also included rigging and fittings designed by Rod Stephens.

And with Harold S Vanderbilt's experience as skipper the Ranger was unbeatable.

The hosts won the first race by more than 17 minutes and never looked back.

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