Tyler Hamilton argued that his two-year doping ban should be overturned at his appeal hearing at the Court of Arbitration for Sport in Denver.
The 34-year-old American tested positive during the 2004 Tour of Spain, a month after he won gold in the time trial at the Athens Olympics.
The US Anti-Doping Agency imposed a two-year ban last April but Hamilton has denied any doping violation.
CAS could take several weeks to reach a decision on Hamilton's appeal.
Hamilton also tested positive after Athens but the case was dropped after the B sample was mistakenly frozen.
The International Olympic Committee stated it could not strip Hamilton of gold without a B sample as a back-up test.
His initial CAS appeal hearing last September was suspended because not all the evidence could be presented in time.