Russia have appealed to the Court of Arbitration for Sport against American cyclist Tyler Hamilton's Olympic gold.
Hamilton was allowed to keep his time-trial gold from Athens despite testing positive for a blood transfusion.
The International Olympic Committee argued the B sample, or second test, had been destroyed by deep-freezing.
But Russia Olympic Committee told the CAS Hamilton should be stripped of his medal, which should go to Russian Vyacheslav Ekimov who finished second.
The appeal from the Russian body said: "The ROC insists on the disqualification of Hamilton."
Hamilton was told he had given a positive A, or first, test for a blood transfusion at the Olympics in Athens on 18 August.
But the IOC halted its investigation when his back-up specimen was mistakenly frozen. IOC rules state an athlete is only guilty when both samples come back positive.
Hamilton is the first cyclist to have tested positive for blood doping - when athletes inject blood from another person in order to increase red blood cells and improve stamina.
And he later failed another test after winning a time trial in the Tour of Spain on 11 September.
The 33-year-old has maintained he is "100%" innocent of the charges but, if found guilty, could be banned for two years, effectively ending his career.