Russia will appeal to the Court of Arbitration for Sport after American cyclist Tyler Hamilton was cleared of doping violations.
Hamilton twice tested positive for a blood transfusion, first after winning the Olympic time trial gold medal and then during the Tour of Spain.
But the International Olympic Committee said the B sample, or second test, had been destroyed by being deep-frozen.
Hamilton finished ahead of Russia's Vyacheslav Ekimov at the Olympics.
Russian Cycling Federation president Alexander Gusyatnikov described the decision to clear the American as "simply outrageous".
He confirmed Russia would appeal to the Lausanne-based arbitrator.
Hamilton's Phonak team have already stated the B test on a blood sample he gave at the Tour of Spain tested positive, and they plan to investigate the discrepancies between the tests.
The rider was told he gave a positive A, or first, test for a blood transfusion at the Olympics in Athens on 18 August.
He then failed another test, conducted by cycling's governing body the International Cycling Union (UCI), after winning a time trial in Spain on 11 September.
Hamilton is the first cyclist to have tested positive for blood doping - when athletes inject blood from another person in order to increase red blood cells and improve stamina.
Hamilton has maintained he is is "100%" innocent of the charges.
The 33-year-old could be banned for two years, effectively ending his career, if the UCI finds him guilty of doping offences in the Tour of Spain.