The World Anti-Doping Agency (Wada) is considering increasing minimum drugs bans from two to four years and using just one test to determine guilt.
World Anti Doping Agency Chairman Dick Pound
"Some very important federations think we should increase (the minimum ban)," said Wada chairman Dick Pound.
Current regulations mean samples have an A and B test, but Pound said: "There is a body of thought among some of our stakeholders that A should be enough."
The issues will be debated in a meeting in Montreal on Monday.
While the vast majority of positive A and B samples correlate, high-profile cases involving the former Olympic champion Marion Jones and Bernard Lagat have produced different results.
Jones' case is still not resolved despite being cleared following her negative B sample after she tested positive for EPO.
The International Association of Athletics Federations has called for first-time bans to be increased to four years.