Irina Lashko collected her first World Championship gold medal since becoming an Australian, winning the women's 1m springboard event.
It was Australia's first ever gold medal in women's diving at a major international event.
"It's a first gold for Australia and it makes me really happy," said Lashko, who has been living in Australia for the past five years.
"It's a pleasure to do this for Australia."
The Russian-born diver scored 299.97 points, just enough to beat silver medalist Conny Schmalfuss of Germany at 296.13.
Defending champion Blythe Hartley of Canada won the bronze with 291.33.
Hartley led in the first four rounds but slipped in the fifth and final round.
Lashko, 30, won gold in the same event in the worlds five years ago and is also a two-times Olympic silver medalist in the 3m springboard.
In her first World Championships competing as an Australian two years ago, she was sixth in the 1m event and second in the 3m.
Australia picked up a silver medal on Sunday on the first day of the worlds through Loudy Tourky and Lynda Dackiw in the 10m synchronized.