Kostas Kenteris and Katerina Thanou have been charged with avoiding a drug test on the eve of the Athens Olympics and then faking a motorcycle accident.
The athletes have been charged by the Greek authorities after a two-month investigation.
Kenteris, 31, won gold in the 200m at the Sydney Olympics in 2000, where Thanou, 29, won silver in the 100m.
Their former coach Christos Tzekos has also been charged, but no trial date has yet been set.
Tzekos has been charged with importing, possessing and producing banned substances.
Doctors and witnesses have also charged with making false statements about the alleged motorbike accident Kenteris and Thanou claim to have suffered before being admitted to an Athens hospital.
The two athletes claimed they had the accident when rushing back to the Olympic village to undergo the test they missed.
They are expected to be fined if found guilty, with a source saying the pair are unlikely to be jailed.
However, a ruling against them would weigh heavily on any decision the International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF) might make for missing the drug test.
The IAAF confirmed it has scheduled a meeting for next week to discuss the evidence.
Under IAAF rules, the athletes could receive a maximum one-year suspension.
The IAAF said: "We are not sure yet whether a decision can be taken next week but the important thing is that they get the chance to study all the evidence."