The Circuit de Catalunya, which hosts the Spanish Grand Prix later this month, saw its second high-speed crash in a week on Wednesday.
Rosberg was unhurt after his high-speed accident
Williams called an end to their Barcelona test a day early after Nico Rosberg wrecked his car at turn seven.
The German was unhurt but was taken to hospital as a precaution before being allowed to go home.
On Monday, the team's test driver Kazuki Nakajima hit the tyre barriers, damaging the right side of the car.
Williams were forced to fly out more parts to repair the Japanese driver's car.
Rosberg's crash happened early in the day when the track was still damp from heavy rain on Tuesday.
"Nico went off on his first run and had a crash that resulted in heavy chassis damage," said Williams' technical director Sam Michael.
"Nico's fine. However, the damage cannot be repaired at the circuit so the test team is now returning to the factory."
The Spanish Grand Prix takes place on 13 May.