He suffered a broken arm in November after being caught by what he described as a "poor challenge" from Tottenham striker Jermain Defoe.
Gordon returned in January and enjoyed his best run of form on Wearside, a series of impressive displays helping the club to a 13th-placed finish in the Premier League.
According to the Scottish Football Association's website, he is expected to miss the first four Euro 2012 qualifiers against Lithuania and Liechtenstein in September, and world champions Spain and Czech Republic in October.
"It is obviously very disappointing to lose a goalkeeper of Craig's calibre for such a significant part of the campaign," said Scotland boss Craig Levein.
"I am as disappointed for the player himself as I am for the country because I know how hard he has worked to overcome a series of injuries.
"Craig has been an exceptional goalkeeper for Scotland - a talisman in fact - and I think, after getting a metal plate inserted in his arm last season, he was getting back to his best form for Sunderland."
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