A Steffen Iversen penalty was sufficient to secure the points for Norway at Hampden on Saturday.
James McFadden was ordered off after 53 minutes for deliberate handball as he punched Claus Lundekvam's header off the line.
Iversen made no mistake from the resultant penalty.
The closest Scotland came to scoring was a first-half effort from Richard Hughes that Iversen cleared off the line with Thomas Myhre beaten.
Scotland started promisingly and when Darren Fletcher was fouled 25 yards out, McFadden curled a free-kick over the wall but Myhre collected low at his left-hand post.
John Carew showed how dangerous he could be with a good run on the left but his cutback was palmed away by Craig Gordon and cleared by Hughes.
Norway forced a succession of corners in the early part of the match and Carew's aerial presence almost brought a goal after 23 minutes, but his header was just too high.
Scotland should have taken the lead after half-an-hour.
McFadden swung in a corner from the right, which fell to Paul Dickov five yards out. The striker's shot on the turn was parried by Myhre into the path of Hughes, but his effort under pressure was weak and was cleared off the line by Iversen.
Dickov picked up a stupid yellow card for kicking out at Erik Hagen - a booking that rules him out of Wednesday's game in Moldova.
Hagen almost punished poor marking with a powerful back-post header that Gordon did well to hold.
The Norwegian threat at set pieces came to fruition after 53 minutes when Gordon misjudged a corner, allowing Lundekvam to head goalwards, only for McFadden to punch the ball off the line.
McFadden (partially hidden) is shown the red card
The striker was shown the red card and Iversen calmly side-footed the penalty past Gordon.
Dickov brought Myhre into the action after 66 minutes after turning Hagen on the edge of the box but his shot was comfortably saved.
Substitute Morten Gamst Pedersen should have added to the Norwegian lead with 15 minutes remaining after he got away from Gary Caldwell inside the box, but in trying to chip Gordon he put the ball over the bar.
The remaining minutes were comfortable for Norway against a Scotland side lacking in guile.
Stephen Pearson went down in the box in the closing seconds looking for a penalty, but nothing was given and Scotland's 19-year unbeaten record at Hampden in World Cup qualifiers was gone.
Scotland: Gordon, Gary Caldwell, Naysmith, Anderson, Webster, Ferguson, Fletcher, Holt (Thompson 80), Dickov (Miller 75), McFadden, Hughes (Pearson 63).
Subs Not Used: Marshall, Stevie Crawford, Murray, Stephen Caldwell.
Sent Off: McFadden (54).
Booked: Dickov, Gary Caldwell.
Norway: Myhre, Bergdolmo, Hagen, Lundekvam, Riise, Sorensen (Andresen 74), Solli, Hoseth (Pedersen 58), Larsen, Carew, Iversen (Frode Johnsen 89).
Subs Not Used: Gashi, Soma, Rushfeldt, Espen Johnsen.
Goals: Iversen 55 pen.
Ref: Paul Allaerts (Belgium).