Patrick Kluivert ended nine-man Chelsea's dream of an unprecedented quadruple as his header put Newcastle into the quarter-finals of the FA Cup.
The Dutchman struck after four minutes before Mateja Kezman hit the underside of the bar as Chelsea came back.
Jose Mourinho made three half-time changes but the move backfired as Wayne Bridge was stretchered off and Damien Duff was forced to play through injury.
Carlo Cudicini was sent off in a crazy finish as Chelsea's dream crumbled.
Heavy snow in Tyneside had threatened the match, and Chelsea must have wished it had been postponed as they suffered a catalogue of disasters.
They were caught cold after just four mintues as Kluivert left William Gallas standing to connect with Laurent Robert's cross and put Newcastle ahead.
It was only the second goal Chelsea had conceded in 12 games, a fact not lost on the delirious home fans.
But it was reward for a solid start from Newcastle which left Mourinho looking uncharacteristically rattled.
Bridge could be out for the rest of the season
His nerves will not have been helped by Kezman's wastefulness on 23 minutes.
The Serbia and Montenegro international latched on to Tiago's deflected cross and lifted the ball over Shay Given, only to see it hit the bar and bounce to safety.
Given was also at full stretch to tip Jiri Jarosik's right-footed shot around the post as Chelsea pressed for an equaliser.
Mourinho proved he was angling for the win as he rang the changes at half-time, bringing on Eidur Gudjohnsen, Frank Lampard and Damien Duff for Geremi, Joe Cole and Tiago.
It will have frustrated the boss, who wanted to rest his stars ahead of Wednesday's Champions League tie with Barcelona.
And his mood will have blackened two minutes later as Bridge was stretchered off after landing awkwardly following Alan Shearer's challenge, leaving the Blues with 10 men.
The game opened up with Chelsea pressing forward, but Laurent Robert in particular was keen to exploit the inevitable gaps in the visitors' defence.
The Blues remained positive with Kezman and Lampard both trying their luck from long range, although Stephen Carr forced a good save from Cudicini after a quick break.
But Chelsea's injury woes continued as Duff picked up a knock and was forced to continue with Mourinho unable to substitute him.
In a pulsating climax, Glen Johnson almost put the ball into his own net.
Still the drama was not over as Cudicini was red-carded for fouling Shola Ameobi as Newcastle pressed - yet stand-in stopper Johnson produced a superb save from Robert's free-kick.
And Gallas was also left limping as full-time came and Chelsea were left chasing just the three trophies.
Newcastle boss Graeme Souness:
"It's the first time we've won 1-0 for some time. If you do that, you will get to where you want to be.
"We have found it hard to win 1-0. Chelsea were accused of being boring when they were winning 1-0 earlier in the season, but they're a great team.
"If you win it gives you confidence. People say nice things about you."
Chelsea boss Jose Mourinho:
"Sometimes you lose and you are still very proud of the team, even more than when they win. I thought they were magnificent.
"The way they reacted against a very good team, when they were a goal down, then we had 10 players after Bridge's injury, nine players when Duff got injured.
"We had good chances to score goals - the Kezman one was unbelieveable. The way they fought was fantastic."
Newcastle: Given, Carr, Boumsong, Bramble, Babayaro, Dyer (Milner 68), Jenas, Butt, Robert, Shearer (Ameobi 64), Kluivert.Subs Not Used: Caig, N'Zogbia, Hughes.
Goals: Kluivert 4.
Chelsea: Cudicini, Johnson, Gallas, Ricardo Carvalho, Bridge, Jarosik, Smertin, Tiago (Gudjohnsen 45), Geremi (Lampard 45), Kezman, Cole (Duff 45). Subs Not Used: Cech, Paulo Ferreira.
Sent Off: Cudicini (90).
Booked: Tiago, Ricardo Carvalho.
Ref: M Halsey (Lancashire).