Ancelotti felt his side deserved something out of the game and he was unhappy at what he felt was a handball by Micah Richards immediately before Adebayor's equaliser.
"We were disappointed with the referee," he said. "I am surprised because I consider Howard Webb to be a fantastic referee but we felt it was a handball by Richards.
"I did feel we deserved to draw, but we lost."
The Italian also made light of his side's poor discipline, after they picked up six yellow cards, including one for a poor tackle by Juliano Belletti that led to Wayne Bridge being carried off with medial ligament damage.
"We did not lose control," stressed Ancelotti. "We had to go one against one at the back near the end and in that situation it is easy to pick up a yellow card.
"I didn't really see the tackle by Belletti on Bridge but he might have arrived a little late."
City boss Mark Hughes was unhappy with that incident at the time but said he would need to view it again to determine whether there was any malice involved.
However, Hughes did give his opinion on Lampard's penalty - saying that he had expected him to score.
"Sometimes things happen that you don't expect and I didn't expect Frank to miss," said Hughes.
"In fairness to him, I think he understood the importance of converting that chance, which brought extra pressure."
Hughes was delighted with the victory, which he feels was reward for his side's spirit and adventure.
"We had to show courage and bravery," he said. "When you are playing a team like Chelsea you need to believe in your own ability.
"Some sides give them too much respect, which just allows them to create opportunities and win games."
City now have seven points from their meetings with each of the "big four" this season, having beaten Arsenal and drawn at Liverpool.
Even the defeat at Manchester United did not come until the sixth minute of stoppage time.
And Ancelotti expects City to improve.
"They will do better in the future," he said. "They have a very good squad and some very good players.
"When you change a lot of players you need time to get the right people into the team.
"Their future is going to be better than their past. They are going to do well, although I don't know whether it will be this season."
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