Kevin Keegan's men had to defend for much of the second half but West Ham were unable to regain the lead.
Luis Boa Morte, who replaced Ljunberg, sent a shot wide of the target with the stretching Zamora just unable to add the touch that would have guided the ball into the net.
Referee Uriah Rennie ignored West Ham's appeals for a penalty after Zamora's shot seemed to hit Taylor's arm, before keeper Steve Harper did well to tip over Ashton's 15-yard drive.
But for all West Ham's pressure, it was Newcastle who came closest to scoring a late winner.
Again it was Martins who caused panic in the Hammers penalty area, this time shrugging off Lucas Neill and testing Green with a low shot the England international brilliantly pushed away at his left-hand post.
West Ham manager Alan Curbishley: "I asked for a response from the fans and they got behind the players right from the first minute.
"The fans have a vital role to play and the players responded to them. We played ever so well for 40 minutes and just got caught.
"In the second half I was pleased that we dug in, and we could have won it with the chances we had."
Newcastle boss Kevin Keegan: "David Edgar had a tough game and I was pleased with him, because he really had to fight.
"He's had to have stitches and is a proper centre-back now he's got a scar. As the game wore on he looked more and more comfortable and by the end he looked at home as a Premier League defender.
"It was an open game of football and I think a draw was the right result in the end."
West Ham: Green, Pantsil, Tomkins, Neill, McCartney, Faubert (Solano 90), Parker, Noble, Ljungberg (Boa Morte 21), Zamora (Cole 68), Ashton. Subs Not Used: Walker, Mullins.
Booked: Faubert, Pantsil.
Goals: Noble 10, Ashton 23.
Newcastle: Harper, Beye, Edgar (Diatta 90), Taylor, Jose Enrique, Geremi, Butt, Barton, Owen, Viduka (Smith 82), Martins. Subs Not Used: Forster, Duff, Carroll.
Booked: Beye, Butt, Martins.
Goals: Martins 42, Geremi 45.
Ref: Uriah Rennie (S Yorkshire).
BBC Sport Player Rater man of the match: Obafemi Martins: 8.08 (on 90 minutes).
Please note that you can still give the players marks out of 10 on BBC Sport's Player Rater after the match has finished.
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