Charlton fought an impressive rearguard action to deny Newcastle and earn their first away point of the season.
Neither Scott Parker (left) nor Marcus Bent could break the deadlock
The Magpies dominated and came closest in the first half when Giuseppe Rossi deflected Damien Duff's shot on to the underside of the bar.
Duff was also denied by the faultless Scott Carson in the Charlton goal with a second-half shot.
Charlton's Andy Reid had a shot saved by Steve Harper, but the visitors rarely seriously threatened to score.
Newcastle set the tone for the match early on and Duff saw a shot fly just over after being deflected by Hermann Hreidarsson, while Parker's volley dropped just wide of Carson's post.
Rossi also saw a powerful shot deflected just wide by Duff.
There was controversy on the half-hour mark as Duff went down in the area after his heels clipped Souleymane Diawara - but referee Mike Dean waved play on.
Six minutes before the break Rossi came desperately close to breaking the deadlock.
The Italian striker attempted to flick Duff's shot into the net but could only guide it on to the underside of the bar.
Charles N'Zogbia also saw a shot well saved by Carson and Rossi was denied by a tremendous last-ditch tackle by Diawara as Newcastle finished the half strongly.
The momentum stayed with the home side after the break as Duff shot weakly when well-placed and then blazed over from inside the six-yard box.
Reid had Charlton's first effort on target on 52 minutes with a long-range drive which was comfortably held by Harper in the Newcastle goal.
The Magpies came back again and Duff was denied by Carson after some slick passing on the edge of the Charlton box.
As the game moved into the final half hour, Charlton seemed to take confidence from Newcastle's inability to break them down and Darren Bent shot wide when well-placed.
Bryan Hughes came closer with a side-footed effort with 10 minutes remaining which flew just wide.
N'Zogbia almost won it at the end for Newcastle, but his drive was palmed around the post by Carson.
Newcastle midfielder Scott Parker:
"You saw the way we played, the game should be have been over with in the first-half.
"We've dominated the game from start to finish but that has been the story of our season so far.
"They're not going in for us but we have got to keep digging in, we can take some positives out of the game and we see where we go from here."
Charlton boss Iain Dowie:
"We didn't retain the ball enough. Scottie (Carson) kept us in the game and we rode our luck in the first half.
"We crept into the game and started to restrict Newcastle to a lot of direct play but we did not play well enough to win. We were not good enough on the ball."
Newcastle: Harper, Carr, Moore, Bramble, Babayaro, Solano (Milner 83), Parker, Butt, N'Zogbia, Duff, Rossi.
Subs Not Used: Srnicek, Luque, Ramage, Taylor.
Charlton: Carson, Young, El Karkouri, Diawara, Hreidarsson, Rommedahl, Holland, Faye, Reid (Kishishev 72), Marcus Bent (Hughes 60), Darren Bent.
Subs Not Used: Andersen, Hasselbaink, Fortune.
Ref: M Dean (Wirral).