Newcastle failed to win for the first time under caretaker boss Glenn Roeder.
Darren Bent had a number of chances for Charlton
The home side twice hit the woodwork, Charlton keeper Thomas Myhre misjudging Emre's first-half corner and then Peter Ramage's second-half cross.
Shola Ameobi headed over a clear chance for Newcastle from a Emre corner and the home striker might have had a penalty following a Chris Perry tackle.
Shay Given made the best save of the game, superbly denying Darren Bent, who had several good chances for Charlton.
In the closing stages Darren Bent was denied by a last-ditch Jean-Alain Boumsong tackle, while the Charlton striker fired a half-volley narrowly wide after good work from fellow striker Marcus Bent.
Emre was Newcastle's most effective player in a drab first-half, the midfielder standing out with his vision and passing.
The Turkish international almost gave his side an early lead from a corner as Charlton goalkeeper Myhre allowed the ball to skim on to the crossbar.
Emre's next effort was a chip, but the Newcastle midfielder was unable to get sufficient height on his shot and Myhre easily saved.
Boumsong had Newcastle's best chance of the first half when he escaped his marker Hermann Hreidarsson only to direct his header straight at Myhre.
Midway through the opening period Bryan Hughes jinked his way past Robbie Elliott and Boumsong, before he was tackled by Nolberto Solano.
Just before the interval Boumsong bravely blocked Darren Ambrose's powerful volley in a rare Charlton first-half attack.
Early in the second half Myhre was quickly brought into action as he bravely threw himself at the feet of Ameobi after the Newcastle striker had been released by Lee Bowyer's through ball.
Newcastle had to rejig their defence when Titus Bramble limped off with an injury, with Elliott moving alongside Boumsong.
The loss of Bramble initially caused Newcastle problems and Marcus Bent should have done better in a Charlton counterattack only to delay his pass too long.
Through the tireless work of Darren Bent, Charlton began to seriously threaten the Newcastle defence in the game's closing stages.
But he was first frustrated by Given's goalkeeping and then Boumsong's well-timed tackle.
Newcastle caretaker manager Glenn Roeder:
"We need more of a cutting edge up front.
"There was lots of endeavour, a few close shaves and we had the best chance with Shola Ameobi, but he has put the ball over the crossbar.
"There was never a gilt-edged chance, but I don't think you could knock the players' commitment during the game."
Charlton manager Alan Curbishley:
"We've needed to keep a clean sheet and we're delighted with it.
"We've been desperate to improve our away form and we looked the most likely to win in the last 10 minutes.
"We've never had a good run-in, but hopefully this season will be better."
Newcastle: Given, Ramage, Bramble (Luque 55), Boumsong, Elliott, Solano, Parker, Bowyer, N'Zogbia, Emre, Ameobi.
Subs Not Used: Harper, Faye, Clark, Chopra.
Charlton: Myhre, Young, Perry, Hreidarsson, Spector, Kishishev, Holland, Hughes (Euell 70), Ambrose, Marcus Bent, Darren Bent.
Subs Not Used: El Karkouri, Powell, Randolph, Bothroyd.
Booked: Young, Ambrose.
Ref: U Rennie (S Yorkshire).