A superb strike from Carlisle's Karl Hawley ended Doncaster's unbeaten home league record at the Keepmoat Stadium.
Rovers defence failed to close down Hawley allowing him the chance to curl in the winner off the post.
James Coppinger gave Rovers an early lead after he slotted home an angled drive in style.
Jeff Smith equalised in the second half with a strike from 25 yards which flew into the top corner, but Lewis Guy missed late on for Doncaster.
Doncaster: Smith, O'Connor, Lee, Lockwood, Gilbert, Coppinger, Stock, Paul Green (Stephen Roberts 88), Forte (McCammon 68), Heffernan, Price (Guy 68).
Subs Not Used: Gareth Roberts, Wilson.
Goals: Coppinger 3.
Carlisle: Westwood, Raven, Murphy, Livesey (Gray 85), Aranalde, Murray (McDermott 76), Thirlwell, Jeff Smith, Hawley, Garner, Gall (Johann Smith 63).
Subs Not Used: Williams, Holmes.
Goals: Jeff Smith 56, Hawley 78.
Ref: S Bratt (West Midlands).