Danny Graham came closest in the first half but saw his close-range shot tipped over by Leeds' Neil Sullivan, who also saved from Giles Barnes.
Derby keeper Lee Camp saved from Robbie Blake and then in the second half also held Liam Miller's 25-yard volley.
Later in the second period, Sullivan did very well to deny Middlesbrough's on-loan striker Graham again.
Leeds boss Kevin Blackwell:
"Over the game we had more of it but in the second half I thought they sorted it out and worked us harder.
"But I thought we had two blatant penalties in the first half and sometimes you need a little break.
"To be fair to Derby they put in a real workmanlike display and it could have gone either way in the second half."
Derby: Camp, Edworthy, Hajto, Moore, Jackson (Doyle 61), Bisgaard (Holmes 74), Bolder, Barnes, Smith, El Hamdaoui, Graham (Peschisolido 74).
Subs Not Used: Poole, Nyatanga.
Booked: Hajto, El Hamdaoui.
Leeds: Sullivan, Kelly, Butler, Gregan, Crainey, Miller, Douglas, Derry, Lewis (Pugh 89), Hulse, Blake (Moore 71).
Subs Not Used: Bennett, Einarsson, Walton.
Booked: Derry, Kelly.
Ref: P Dowd (Staffordshire).