Davies' highest Championship score last season was 99 not out
England hopeful Steven Davies hit a superb century but could not prevent Worcestershire slipping towards a second straight Championship defeat.
The wicketkeeper made 126 before falling to Samit Patel as they were dismissed for 354, two short of avoiding the follow-on.
Nottinghamshire asked them to bat again and Andre Adams removed Stephen Moore and Chris Whelan in three balls.
Daryl Mitchell was also dismissed as they closed on 24-3, still 127 behind.
It leaves Worcestershire with an uphill task to save the game after losing by seven wickets inside three days at Hampshire last week.
Resuming their first innings on 140-4, the visitors pushed their score to 209 before Mitchell edged Graeme Swann to Ali Brown at slip to depart for 80.
That proved the only wicket of the morning session, but Stuart Broad, who had taken all four Worcestershire wickets to fall on day two, had Gareth Batty caught behind for 22 after lunch to complete his first five-wicket haul for Notts, eventually finishing with 5-79.
Australian Ashley Noffke (39) kept Davies company to complete his fifth first-class hundred, and first Championship ton since August 2006, off 222 balls.
But Noffke's resilience was ended shortly after tea by Swann, while Patel forced a tired drive out of Davies before trapping Whelan lbw with his next ball.
Matt Mason tried to guide Worcestershire past the follow-on target with some lusty hitting, but Swann snapped him up caught and bowled to leave Nottinghamshire in complete charge.
Nottinghamshire all-rounder Graeme Swann told BBC Radio Nottingham:
"It was tough old day. The wicket was very slow and very flat for much of the day and they had a couple of good partnerships. We have the momentum in the game.
"But it was good to get that last wicket and I think we are in a good position now.
"Stuart Broad has bowled exceptionally well. There's no pace or bounce in the pitch and as a tall bowler that's what he thrives on. To get five wickets was an exceptional effort and all the plaudits should go to Broady."
Worcestershire batsman Stephen Moore told BBC Hereford and Worcester:
"At one stage it was looking fantastic as the guys had dug in and Steve Davies got a fantastic hundred and things were looking rosy.
"What it shows is that in Division One cricket, and in elite sport in general, if you take your foot off the gas at any time things can change in the blink of an eye.
"We have the belief in the dressing room that we can compete and do very well at this level, but unfortunately our discipline hasn't been there."
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