Johnson's highlight of the last 12 months was his maiden Test century
England captain Andrew Strauss missed out on two awards as Australia's Mitchell Johnson was named ICC Cricketer of the Year in Johannesburg.
Pace bowler Johnson, who took 80 Test wickets in the year from August 2008, beat Strauss and India's Gautam Gambhir and Mahendra Dhoni to the top award.
Batsman Gambhir edged out Strauss in the Test award while wicketkeeper Dhoni was voted best one-day player.
But Strauss, who led England to Ashes glory, was named in the ICC's Test XI.
England all-rounder Stuart Broad was also named in the best Test side while Andrew Flintoff and Kevin Pietersen were both named in the one-day team of the year.
Claire Taylor was named the ICC's Women Cricketer of the Year after her batting helped England win both the Women's World Cup and Women's World Twenty20.
Strauss was an inspirational leader as England regained the Ashes this summer.
The 32-year-old opener hit a crucial 161 at Lord's and four further fifties to help England secure a 2-1 series win, but he missed out to Mitchell's all-round efforts.
Mitchell's place in Australia's side came under threat during the Ashes but he came back strongly in the final two Tests, taking 5-69 in the innings victory at Headingley.
The 27-year-old also enjoyed two impressive series with bat and ball against South Africa earlier in the voting period, taking a Test-best 8-61 in Perth in December and hitting his maiden Test century in Cape Town in March.
In 17 Tests from 13 August 2008 to 24 August this year, the Australian took 80 wickets and scored 632 runs at an average of 30.09.
Johnson also played 16 one-day internationals, taking 28 wickets at 24.25, with an economy rate of 5.06.
"I'm really blown away. I am just surprised to be up here," he said.
"It has been a great 12 months for our side. We have lost some wonderful players and have been rebuilding with some young guys in the team and we have played together well."
ICC president David Morgan said: "Mitchell has worked extremely hard over the past year to be an integral part of Australia's bowling line-up and his effective batting style has turned him into one of the top all-round cricketers.
"His statistics for the last 12 months show how worthy a winner of this title he is."
The 27-year-old Gambhir, who beat Johnson, Strauss and Sri Lanka's Thilan Samaraweera to the Test award, scored five centuries and 1,269 runs at an average of 84.60 in the eight Test matches he played.
His captain Dhoni won the one-day player award for the second year in a row, seeing off competition from team-mates Yuvraj Singh and Virender Sehwag, as well as West Indies batsman Shivnarine Chanderpaul.
The batsman/wicketkeeper scored 967 runs at an average of 60.43 in 24 matches during the voting period.
Despite missing out on the individual award, Strauss told BBC Radio 5 Live that being included in the Test team of the year was a "humbling" experience.
"To be named in Test team of the year is huge recognition, something I'm particularly proud of and quite humbled by," he said.
"It's been a special year for me - so much has happened in the last 12 months, in cricket we don't get many chances to look back, so it's nice to be able to reflect on what's happened."
Australia pace bowler Peter Siddle won the emerging player award after taking 49 wickets at 28.93 in 12 Test matches.
He was the top choice of the 25-person voting academy, coming in ahead of team-mate Ben Hilfenhaus, England bowler Graham Onions and New Zealand's big hitter Jesse Ryder.
Ireland captain William Porterfield won the associate and affiliate award after scoring two one-day international centuries and helping his side qualify for the 2011 World Cup.
Sri Lanka's Tillakaratne Dilshan won international Twenty20 performance of the year for his unbeaten 96 off 57 balls against West Indies at The Oval.
The selection panel was chaired by West Indies legend Clive Lloyd and included former India captain Anil Kumble, former England wicketkeeper Bob Taylor, former Pakistan opener Mudassar Nazar and former New Zealand captain Stephen Fleming among others.
Cricketer of the Year: Mitchell Johnson (Aus)
Test Player of the Year: Gautam Gambhir (Ind)
ODI Player of the Year: Mahendra Dhoni (Ind)
Women's Cricketer of the Year: Claire Taylor (Eng)
Emerging Player of the Year: Peter Siddle (Aus)
Associate and Affiliate Player of the Year: William Porterfield (Ire)
Twenty20 International Performance of the Year: Tillakaratne Dilshan (SL)
Spirit of Cricket Award: New Zealand
Umpire of the Year Award: Aleem Dar
Teams of the year:
Test XI: Gautam Gambhir (Ind), Andrew Strauss (Eng), AB de Villiers (SA), Sachin Tendulkar (Ind), Thilan Samaraweera (SL), Michael Clarke (Aus), MS Dhoni (Ind, wk and captain), Shakib Al Hasan (Ban), Mitchell Johnson (Aus), Stuart Broad (Eng), Dale Steyn (SA).
ODI XI: Virender Sehwag (Ind), Chris Gayle (WI), Kevin Pietersen (Eng), Tillakaratne Dilshan (SL), Yuvraj Singh (Ind), Martin Guptill (NZ), MS Dhoni (Ind, WK and captain), Andrew Flintoff (Eng), Nuwan Kulasekara (SL), Ajantha Mendis (SL), Umar Gul (Pkn)
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