Russia's Liliya Shobukhova won the 2010 women's London Marathon, while Yamauchi finished in 10th place
Mara Yamauchi will miss April's London Marathon with a hamstring injury.
The Japan-based Briton was seeking a return to form after two disappointing marathons in 2010, in London last April and in New York seven months later.
Yamauchi, 37, said: "I was looking forward to returning to London this April. But my injury treatment and rehabilitation must take priority.
"I hope to return to my best as soon as I can. I wish everyone who competes on 17 April the best of luck."
Oxford-born Yamauchi was one of 15 women announced in the elite line-up who have finished a marathon in under two hours 25 minutes.
She set her personal best of 2:23:12 when finishing second to Germany's Irina Mikitenko in London in 2009, but has been dogged by injuries since.
She missed the 2009 world championships in Berlin with a foot injury and could finish only 10th in London last year, and 13th in New York.
Britain's hopes in the women's event now rest with Olympian Liz Yelling, the former Commonwealth Games bronze medalist, plus two marathon debutants, Yelling's sister-in-law Hayley Yelling, and seasoned international Jo Pavey.
Andrew Lemoncello will fly the flag for Britain in the men's race. The Scotsman was eighth on his debut last year.