Justin Gatlin's coach Trevor Graham has pleaded not guilty to charges of lying to federal agents when he appeared in court in San Francisco on Thursday.
Graham blew the whistle on THG but could face the consequences
The charges relate to the Balco scandal, which saw many athletes banned for using illegal steroid THG.
Graham tipped off authorities about the previously-undetectable THG, leading to bans for Tim Montgomery, who he used to coach, and Britain's Dwain Chambers.
If found guilty, Graham faces five years in jail and a £132,000 fine.
Graham prompted the Balco investigation when he anonymously sent a syringe of THG to the US Anti-Doping Agency.
However, the prosecution will allege Graham has been providing his stable of athletes, which has included former Olympic champions Gatlin and Marion Jones as well as Montgomery, with performance-enhancing drugs for almost 10 years.
The government indictment alleges Graham lied when interviewed by federal agents during their investigations in June 2004.
His lawyer Joseph Zeszotarski said: "As Trevor has said all along, he has not been involved in any way in the distribution of illicit substances."