Favourite Docus Inzikuru led from start to finish in Helsinki to win the inaugural women's 3,000m steeplechase.
Inzikuru set the first championship record too for the steeplechase
The 23-year-old Ugandan opened up a sizeable gap over the field to take gold in nine minutes 18.24 seconds.
Russian Yelena Zadorozhnaya tracked Inzikuru for much of the race but her lack of confidence over the water jumps saw her pushed out of the medals.
Compatriot Yekaterina Volkova took silver while Kenyan Jeruto Kiptum came powerfully through to claim bronze.
Inzikuru set another landmark in Helsinki by winning Uganda's first gold medal in the 22-year history of the World Championships.
"I am so grateful to win the first ever medal for Uganda," said Inzikuru.
"I don't like running behind others so I took up the lead position.
"I've been suffering from some knee injuries but now I'm happy to be able to run again."