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Page last updated at 13:24 GMT, Thursday, 29 April 2010 14:24 UK
Behind the pomp of Beltane Festival
The May Queen and Green Man
The May Queen and Green Man are key figures at Beltane

Held on Calton Hill, thousands of spectators gather to witness the fire and ceremony on the night.

John Wilson is an avid fan of Beltane and has been involved with it for the past few years.

This is his account of the pomp and pageantry of Edinburgh's Beltane Festival.

The annual event marks the coming of summer and the Celtic fertility festival.

May Queen

The traditional Green Man and May Queen are in attendance along with blue and red men and white women.

After months of preparations, negotiations, rehearsals, health and safety briefings, Beltane comes together.

It is unstoppable by flood or fire, you'll see a lot of this on the night.

At the blast of a horn, the drums begin the primal rhythm which will carry us through the next three hours of ritual and pageantry.


From its beginnings as a personal celebration in the mid-80s, Edinburgh's Beltane Festival has grown into a huge spectacle organised by the Beltane Fire Society with over 300 performers and an audience of thousands.

The event has grown so much over the years that the Council became concerned about safety and now requires a detailed event programming process to ensure public safety.

Beltane. Photo courtesy of Duncan MacGregor
Hundreds of volunteers are involved in organising the Festival

Edinburgh Council, together with the emergency services, help Beltane Fire Society develop a risk assessment and safety plan.

On the night, volunteer stewards are backed up by professional security personnel and a police presence.

Additionally, first aiders are positioned along the procession and an ambulance complete with paramedics is on site.

With a crowd of over 10,000 revellers on a hill in the dark, nothing is left to chance.

Neid Fire

The Green Man, old and hoary, mounts the Acropolis (the National Monument) and surveys his domain.

The igniting of the Neid Fire, which is started by hand using a bow drill and thistledown tinder, gives birth to a new flame which will be used to light all the other fires on the hill symbolising new beginnings for the coming year.

The May Queen and her consort the Green Man proceed around the hill guided by the Blue Men and escorted by the White Women and the relentless rhythm of the processional drummers.

They pass through the Fire Arch into another world and visit the camps of each element in turn. Air, Earth, Water and Fire, being presented with a gift by each.

New Life

The Red Men, born of chaos on this night, are drawn to the White Women, the epitome of order. They repeatedly charge the procession (and perform some truly impressive acrobatics) but are rebuffed by the White Women.

Beltane procession
Beltane revives the Celtic pagan tradition of fertility

The procession makes its way to a hollow near the bonfire where all the performers have gathered in a great circle.

Overcome by the May Queen's beauty and spurred on by the energy of the Red Men, the Green Man touches the May Queen.

For this trespass, the Queen's handmaidens strike him dead and ritually strip his winter foliage, the lifeless body raised up for all to see. The May Queen then takes pity on the Green Man and breathes new life into him.

Sacred flame

The Green Man is reborn, young and virile, fit to join the May Queen as consort for another year. He rejoices in his new life, unleashing a wild and energetic dance, and summer can begin.

His rebirth mirrors the lighting of the bonfire which is the 'sacred flame' from which Beltane takes its name.

The May Queen and Green Man make their way to the bonfire, passing around it three times, and light it from the Neid Fire, signalling the end of winter and the coming of summer.

The bower

Observances complete, the throng makes its way to the Bower where the royal couple receive the good wishes and offerings of the various groups again.

Here the Red Men, encouraged by the success of the Green Man, once again make overtures to the White Women and this time, having learned some guile and charm, finally succeed in convincing them to dance.

Beltane Fire Festival really is a highlight of the Edinburgh year, getting us ready for summer with this revival of age-old Celtic pagan tradition embellished with a carnival atmosphere and the city's festival spirit.

In Pictures: Beltane Fire Festival
01 May 10 |  Arts & Culture
Japanese drummers join Beltane
29 Apr 10 |  Edinburgh, East and Fife



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