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Return to RUC reform

Human Rights


Policing with the Community

Policing in a Peaceful Society

Public Order Policing

Management and Personnel

Information Technology

Structure of the Police Service

Size of the Police Service

Composition and Recruitment of the Police Service

Training, Education and Development

Culture, Ethos and Symbols

Cooperation with other Police Services


Full report: click here


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Human Rights

1 There should be a comprehensive programme of action to focus policing in Northern Ireland on

a human rights-based approach. [para. 4.6]

2 There should be a new oath, taken individually by all new and existing police officers, expressing

an explicit commitment to upholding human rights. The text might be as follows –

"I hereby do solemnly and sincerely and truly declare and affirm that I will faithfully

discharge the duties of the office of constable, and that in so doing I will act with

fairness, integrity, diligence and impartiality, uphold fundamental human rights and

accord equal respect to all individuals and to their traditions and beliefs." [para. 4.7]

3 A new Code of Ethics should replace the existing, largely procedural code, integrating the

European Convention on Human Rights into police practice. Codes of practice on all aspects of

policing, including covert law enforcement techniques, should be strictly in accordance with the

European Convention on Human Rights. [para. 4.8]

4 All police officers, and police civilians, should be trained (and updated as required) in the

fundamental principles and standards of human rights and the practical implications for policing.

The human rights dimension should be integrated into every module of police training. [para. 4.9]

5 Awareness of human rights issues and respect for human rights in the performance of duty should

be an important element in the appraisal of individuals in the police service. [para. 4.10]

6 A lawyer with specific expertise in the field of human rights should be appointed to the staff of the

police legal services. [para. 4.11]

7 The performance of the police service as a whole in respect of human rights, as in other respects,

should be monitored closely by the Policing Board. [para. 4.12]

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8 An entirely new Policing Board should be created, to replace the present Police Authority.

[para. 6.2]

9 The statutory primary function of the Policing Board should be to hold the Chief Constable and

the police service publicly to account. [para. 6.3]

10 The Policing Board should set objectives and priorities for policing over a 3 to 5 year period,

taking account of any longer term objectives or principles set by the Secretary of State or successor. It should then be responsible for adopting a 3 to 5 year strategy, prepared by the Chief Constable

through a process of discussion with the Board, which should reflect the objectives and priorities

set by the Board. [para. 6.5]

11 The Board should be responsible for adopting an Annual Policing Plan, developed by the Chief

Constable, through a process of discussion with the Board, on the basis of objectives and priorities

set by the Board, and within the agreed 3 to 5 year strategy. [para. 6.6]

12 The Board should be responsible for negotiating the annual policing budget with the Northern

Ireland Office, or with the appropriate successor body after devolution of policing. It should then

allocate the police service budget to the Chief Constable and monitor police performance against

the budget. [para. 6.7]

13 The Board should monitor police performance against the Annual Policing Plan and the 3 – 5 year

strategy. It should watch crime trends and patterns, and police performance in public order

situations. It should also follow such things as recruitment patterns and trends, including fair

employment and equal opportunities performance, and training needs. It should assess public

satisfaction with the police service and, in liaison with the Police Ombudsman, patterns and trends

in complaints against the police. [para. 6.8]

14 The Board should have the responsibility for appointing all chief officers and civilian equivalents

and for determining the length of their contracts. All appointments should be subject to approval

by the Secretary of State (and successor after devolution) and the Chief Constable should be

consulted in relation to the appointment of subordinate chief officers and civilian equivalents. The

Board should have the power to call upon the Chief Constable to retire in the interests of efficiency

and effectiveness subject to the approval of the Secretary of State (and successor) and to the right

to make representations as at present. Similarly, the Board should have the same power in relation

to other chief officers and civilian equivalents exercisable subject to the approval of the Secretary

of State (and successor) and to the same right to make representations and after consultation with

the Chief Constable. The Secretary of State should have power to require the Policing Board to

call upon the Chief Constable to retire on the same grounds but this power should be exercisable

only after consultation with the Board and subject to the same right to make representations

already referred to. Additionally, after devolution the relevant Northern Ireland minister should

have power to call for the retirement of the Chief Constable on the same grounds but this should

be subject to the agreement of the Policing Board and the approval of the Secretary of State with

an equivalent right to make representations. The Board should be the disciplinary authority for

chief officers and civilian equivalents. [para. 6.9]

15 The Policing Board should coordinate its work closely with other agencies whose work touches on

public safety, including education, environment, economic development, housing and health

authorities, as well as social services, youth services and the probation service, and with

appropriate non-governmental organizations. [para. 6.10]

16 The Policing Board should have 19 members, 10 of whom should be Assembly members

drawn from the parties that comprise the new Northern Ireland Executive, selected on the

d’Hondt system, who should not at the same time hold ministerial office in the Executive.

[para. 6.11]

17 The nine independent members of the Board should be selected from a range of different

fields – including business, trade unions, voluntary organizations, community groups and the

legal profession – with the aim of finding a group of individuals representative of the

community as a whole, with the expertise both to set policing priorities and to probe and scrutinise

different areas of police performance, from management of resources to the safeguarding of

human rights. Their appointments should be for four years; but if it were necessary for the

purpose of continuity to ensure that not all Board positions fell vacant at the same time as

elections to the Assembly, some of these appointments could be for an initial period of two years.

[para. 6.12]

18 The independent members should be appointed by the Secretary of State, in consultation with the

First Minister and the Deputy First Minister, until such time as responsibility for policing is

devolved, at which point the appointments should be made by the First Minister and the Deputy

First Minister acting together. Until devolution, the Secretary of State should also determine the

remuneration and expenses of Board members, in consultation with the First Minister and the

Deputy First Minister. [para. 6.13]

19 A Board member of high quality and standing in the community should be appointed by the

Secretary of State to be the first chairman of the Board, with the agreement of the First Minister

and the Deputy First Minister, for an initial term of four years. [para. 6.14]

20 Responsibility for policing should be devolved to the Northern Ireland Executive as soon as

possible, except for matters of national security. [para. 6.15]

21 The powers of the Policing Board proposed in this report, in relation to both government (as now

represented by the Secretary of State) and the Chief Constable, should in no way be diminished

when the government role in the tripartite arrangement passes to the Northern Ireland

Executive. [para. 6.15]

22 The provisions of the Police (Northern Ireland) Act 1998 should be simplified so that the

respective roles of the Secretary of State (or successor), the Policing Board and the Chief Constable

are clear. [para. 6.16]

23 The provision, in Section 39 of the Police (Northern Ireland) Act 1998, that the Secretary of State

may issue guidance to the police as to the exercise of their functions, should be repealed.

[para. 6.18]

24 The Chief Constable should be deemed to have operational responsibility for the exercise of his or

her functions and the activities of the police officers and civilian staff under his or her direction

and control. [para. 6.21]

25 The Policing Board should have the power to require the Chief Constable to report on any issue

pertaining to the performance of his functions or those of the police service. The obligation to

report should extend to explaining operational decisions. If there is a disagreement between the

Board and the Chief Constable over whether it is appropriate for a report to be provided on a

particular matter, it should be for the Chief Constable to refer the question to the Secretary of

State for a decision as to whether the Board’s requirement should stand. [para. 6.22]

26 The Policing Board should have the power, subject only to the same limitation set out in

paragraph 6.22, to follow up any report from the Chief Constable by initiating an inquiry into any

aspect of the police service or police conduct. Depending on the circumstances, the Board should

have the option to request the Police Ombudsman, the Inspectorate of Constabulary or the Audit

Office to conduct or contribute to such an inquiry, or to use the Board’s own staff, or even private

consultants for such a purpose. [para. 6.23]

27 Each District Council should establish a District Policing Partnership Board (DPPB), as a committee

of the Council, with a majority elected membership, the remaining independent members to be

selected by the Council with the agreement of the Policing Board. The chair of the DPPB should

be held by an elected member, with rotation between parties from year to year. [para. 6.26]

28 The District Policing Partnership Board in Belfast should have four sub-groups, covering North,

South, East and West Belfast. [para. 6.27]

29 There should be monthly meetings between the DPPB and the police District Commander, at

which the police should present reports and answer questions and the Board should reflect

community concerns and priorities to the police. The views expressed by DPPBs should be taken

fully into account by the police and by the Policing Board in the formulation of policing plans and

strategies at the central level. [para. 6.30]

30 The DPPB should submit an annual report to the District Council, and publish it. [para. 6.31]

31 The approved administration costs of the DPPB should attract a 75% grant from the Policing

Board, the remaining 25% to be funded by the District Council. [para. 6.32]

32 District Councils should have the power to contribute an amount initially up to the equivalent of

a rate of 3p in the pound towards the improved policing of the district, which could enable the

DPPB to purchase additional services from the police or other statutory agencies, or from the

private sector. [para. 6.33]

33 It should be the aim of every police beat manager to have a consultative forum in his or her patrol

area. [para. 6.34]

34 The Policing Board should maintain regular contact with the DPPBs, through periodic meetings

of chairpersons, annual conferences, seminars, training courses and by including them in the

circulation of information. [para. 6.35]

35 The Policing Board should meet in public once a month, to receive a report from the Chief

Constable. [para. 6.36]

36 District Policing Partnership Boards should meet in public once a month, and procedures should

allow for members of the public to address questions to the Board and, through the chair, to the

police. [para. 6.37]

37 The police service should take steps to improve its transparency. The presumption should be that

everything should be available for public scrutiny unless it is in the public interest – not the police

interest – to hold it back. [para. 6.38]

38 The Police Ombudsman should be, and be seen to be, an important institution in the governance

of Northern Ireland, and should be staffed and resourced accordingly. The Ombudsman should

take initiatives, not merely react to specific complaints received. He/she should exercise the power

to initiate inquiries or investigations even if no specific complaint has been received. The

Ombudsman should be responsible for compiling data on trends and patterns in complaints

against the police, or accumulations of complaints against individual officers, and should work

with the police to address issues emerging from this data. He/she should have a dynamic

cooperative relationship with both the police and the Policing Board, as well as other bodies

involved in community safety issues. He/she should exercise the right to investigate and comment

on police policies and practices, where these are perceived to give rise to difficulties, even if the

conduct of individual officers may not itself be culpable, and should draw any such observations

to the attention of the Chief Constable and the Policing Board. The Ombudsman should have

access to all past reports on the RUC. [para. 6.41]

39 New legislation on covert policing should be fully compliant with the European Convention on

Human Rights and should have the same application in Northern Ireland as in the rest of the

United Kingdom. [para. 6.43]

40 There should be a commissioner for covert law enforcement in Northern Ireland. [para. 6.44]

41 There should be a complaints tribunal, comprising senior members of the legal profession, with

full powers to investigate cases referred to it (either directly or through the Police Ombudsman)

involving covert law enforcement operations. [para. 6.45]

42 There should be a substantial strengthening of financial accountability, including: a fully costed

Annual Policing Plan; a strong audit department within the Policing Board, staffed by experts in

budgeting, financial management and value for money programmes; and more systematic use of

the Audit Office to study police resource management, either at the behest of the Policing Board

or on its own initiative. [para. 6.46]

43 The Chief Constable should be designated a sub accounting officer, in addition to the Chief

Executive of the Policing Board, so that either or both may be called, together with the Permanent

Under Secretary as principal accounting officer, to give evidence to the Public Accounts

Committee. [para. 6.47]

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Policing with the Community

44 Policing with the community should be the core function of the police service and the core

function of every police station. [para. 7.9]

45 Every neighbourhood (or rural area) should have a dedicated policing team with lead

responsibility for policing its area. [para. 7.10]

46 Members of the policing team should serve at least three and preferably five years in the same

neighbourhood. They should wear their names clearly displayed on their uniforms, and their

uniforms should also bear the name of the locality for which they are responsible. [para. 7.11]

47 All probationary police officers should undertake the operational phases of their probationary

training doing team policing in the community. [para. 7.12]

48 Where practicable, policing teams should patrol on foot. [para. 7.13]

49 Neighbourhood policing teams should be empowered to determine their own local priorities and

set their own objectives, within the overall Annual Policing Plan and in consultation with

community representatives. [para. 7.14]

50 The Northern Ireland police should, both at a service-wide level and at patrol team level, conduct

crime pattern and complaint pattern analysis to provide an information-led, problem-solving

approach to policing. All police officers should be instructed in problem-solving techniques and

encouraged to address the causes of problems as well as the consequences (the priority being to

train beat managers and their teams); and they should be regularly appraised as to their

performance in doing so. [para. 7.16]

51 DPPB members and other community leaders should be able to attend police training courses in

problem-solving techniques. [para. 7.17]

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Policing in a Peaceful Society

52 Police stations built from now on should have, so far as possible, the appearance of ordinary

buildings; they should have low perimeter walls, and be clearly visible from the street; but they

should have security features, which may be activated or reinforced as necessary. [para. 8.5]

53 Existing police stations should – subject to the security situation in their areas and to health and

safety considerations – be progressively made less forbidding in appearance, more accessible to

public callers and more congenial for those working in them. The public reception areas inside

police stations should be made more welcoming, and civilian receptionists could replace police

officers. [para. 8.6]

54 District police commanders should have discretion to decide in consultation with their local

community how best to balance their resources between static posts and mobile patrols. [para. 8.7]

55 Police cars should continue to be substituted as patrol vehicles in place of armoured Landrovers,

and the use of armoured Landrovers should be limited to threatening situations. [para. 8.8]

56 As soon as possible (that is, as soon as the incidence of deployment ceases to be regular) armoured

Landrovers should be moved to depots, to be kept in reserve for use in public order policing for

as long as this contingency may be required. [para. 8.9]

57 The word "Police" should be painted onto the sides of all Landrovers. [para. 8.10]

58 The role of the army should continue to be reduced, as quickly as the security situation will allow,

so that the police can patrol all parts of Northern Ireland without military support. [para. 8.11]

59 For as long as the prospect remains of substantial public order policing demands on the scale seen

at Drumcree in recent years, the army should retain the capacity to provide support for the police

in meeting those demands. [para. 8.12]

60 Provided the threat of terrorism in Northern Ireland diminishes to the point where no additional

special powers are necessary to combat it, legislation against terrorism should be the same in

Northern Ireland as in the rest of the United Kingdom. [para. 8.14]

61 In the meantime, with immediate effect, records should be kept of all stops and searches and other

such actions taken under emergency powers. [para. 8.14]

62 The three holding centres at Castlereagh, Gough barracks and Strand Road should be closed

forthwith and all suspects should in future be detained in custody suites based in police stations.

[para. 8.15]

63 Video recording should be introduced into the PACE custody suites. [para. 8.16]

64 Responsibility for inspecting all custody and interrogation suites should rest with the Policing

Board, and Lay Visitors should be empowered not only to inspect the conditions of detention (as

at present), but also to observe interviews on camera subject to the consent of the detainee (as is

the case for cell visits). [para. 8.16]

65 The question of moving towards the desired objective of a routinely unarmed police service should

be periodically reviewed in the light of developments in the security environment. [para. 8.19]

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Public Order Policing

66 The Northern Ireland police should have the capacity within its own establishment to deal with

public order emergencies without help from other police services and without more than the

present level of support from the army. [para. 9.6]

67 It should be a condition for the approval of a parade that the organizers should provide their own

marshals, and the organizers and the police should work together to plan the policing of such

events. This should involve as appropriate the representatives of the neighbourhoods involved in

the parade route. [para. 9.9]

68 Marshal training should be further developed, with an appropriate qualification on successful

completion of the training. All parades should be marshalled and, as soon as practicable, it should

be a requirement that all potentially contentious parades requiring a decision or determination

by the Parades Commission should be marshalled by qualified personnel. [para. 9.10]

69 An immediate and substantial investment should be made in a research programme to find an

acceptable, effective and less potentially lethal alternative to the Plastic Baton Round (PBR).

[para. 9.15]

70 The police should be equipped with a broader range of public order equipment than the RUC

currently possess, so that a commander has a number of options at his/her disposal which might

reduce reliance on, or defer resort to, the PBR. [para. 9.16]

71 The use of PBRs should be subject to the same procedures for deployment, use and reporting as

apply in the rest of the United Kingdom. Their use should be confined to the smallest necessary

number of specially trained officers, who should be trained to think of the weapon in the same

way as they would think of a firearm, that is as a weapon which is potentially lethal. Use of PBRs

should in the first instance require the authorisation of a district commander. This should be

justified in a report to the Policing Board, which should be copied to the Police Ombudsman.

Wherever possible, video camera recordings should be made of incidents in which the use of PBRs

is authorised. [para. 9.17]

72 Officers’ identification numbers should be clearly visible on their protective clothing, just as they

should be on regular uniforms. [para. 9.18]

73 The Policing Board and, as appropriate, the Police Ombudsman should actively monitor police

performance in public order situations, and if necessary seek reports from the Chief Constable

and follow up those reports if they wish. [para. 9.19]

74 Guidance governing the deployment and use of PBRs should be soundly based in law, clearly

expressed and readily available as public documents. [para. 9.20]

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Management and Personnel

75 The Northern Ireland police leadership team should include specialists in change management.

These may be either civilians or police officers, preferably both. The leadership team should

produce a programme for change, to be presented to the Policing Board and reviewed periodically

by the Board. The efficiency and effectiveness of each chief officer should be judged on the basis

of, among other things, their capacity to introduce and adapt to change. [para. 10.3]

76 District commanders should have fully devolved authority over the deployment of personnel

(officer and civilian) within their command, devolved budgets (including salary budgets),

authority to purchase a range of goods and services, and to finance local policing initiatives.

They should reach service level agreements with all headquarter support departments.

[para. 10.7]

77 It should be a high priority of management to ensure that the appraisal system is fully effective.

This system should be used as part of the promotion and selection process. An officer’s capacity

for change should be assessed and should also be taken into account in the promotion and

selection process. [para. 10.10]

78 District commanders should be required regularly to account to their senior officers for the

patterns of crime and police activity in their district and to explain how they propose to address

their districts’ problems. [para. 10.11]

79 An automated trend identification system for complaints should be introduced. [para. 10.12]

80 The use of trend information should be followed up by management, and as appropriate by the

department responsible for discipline, and guidance should be drawn up to help managers use

this information effectively. [para. 10.13]

81 Police managers should use random checks as a way to monitor the behaviour of their officers in

dealings with the public and their integrity. [para. 10.14]

82 Police management should use all the tools at its disposal, including when necessary the

administrative dismissal process, to ensure that high professional and ethical standards are

consistently met. [para. 10.15]

83 There should be a tenure policy, so that officers do not have inordinately long postings in any

specialist area of the police. [para. 10.16]

84 Officers injured on duty should be treated as a separate category for sickness recording purposes.

[para. 10.17]

85 A new policy should be formulated for the management of long-term sickness absence,

incorporating appropriate arrangements for medical retirement, career counselling and welfare

support. A system of rewards, as well as sanctions, should be introduced as part of the sickness

management policy. [para. 10.19]

86 There should be a more detailed review of sickness absence, to establish underlying causes and to

make recommendations to address them. [para. 10.19]

87 A substantial fund should be set up to help injured police officers, injured retired officers and their

families, as well as police widows. [para. 10.20]

88 The Widows Association should be given an office in police premises, free of charge, and a regular

source of finance adequate to run their organization. [para. 10.21]

89 The Assistant Chief Constables currently responsible for support services should be replaced by

two civilian Assistant Chief Officers, one responsible for personnel issues and one for finance and

administration. [para. 10.22]

90 There should be a rigorous programme of civilianisation of jobs which do not require police

powers, training or experience, exceptions being made only when it can be demonstrated that

there is a good reason for a police officer to occupy the position. [para. 10.23]

91 The Policing Board and the police service should initiate a review of police support services with

a view to contracting out those services where this will enhance the efficient management of

resources. Consideration should be given to allowing "management buy-outs" of support services

by police officers or civilian employees interested in continuing to provide those services as a

private sector company, and in such cases management buy-out contractors should be offered a

secure contract for at least three years to enable them to establish themselves before having to

tender for renewal. [para. 10.25]

92 The police should commission a comprehensive audit of the whole police estate, to include

outside experts, and develop a strategy for achieving an effective and efficient estate to meet the

objectives for policing as outlined in this report. [para. 10.28]

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Information Technology

93 There should be an urgent, independent, and in-depth strategic review of the use of information

technology (IT) in policing. It should benchmark the Northern Ireland police against police

services in the rest of the world and devise a properly resourced strategy that places them at the

forefront of law enforcement technology within 3 to 5 years. It should be validated by independent

assessment. The strategy should deliver fully integrated technology systems that are readily

accessible to all staff, and should take advantage of the best analytical and communications

systems currently available. Users of the technology should play a key part in devising the strategy,

and in assessing its implementation. [para. 11.13]

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Structure of the Police Service

94 There should be one district command for each District Council area. [para. 12.4]

95 In general, each district command should be headed by a Superintendent and resourced

sufficiently to be self-contained for day-to-day policing purposes and capable of marshalling

strength to cope with most unexpected demands. However, in the districts with small populations

the commander should be a Chief Inspector, and the districts should draw on assistance from

larger neighbouring district commands for functions in which it is not feasible for a small

command to be self-sufficient. [para. 12.5]

96 The divisional layer of management and the regional headquarters should be removed, and

there should be a direct reporting line from each district commander to the appropriate Assistant

Chief Constable at central police headquarters. District commanders in smaller council areas,

whatever their rank, should have such a direct reporting line, reflecting the accountability

arrangements we have recommended. There should be much greater delegation of decision-making

authority to district commanders than is the case now with sub-divisional

commanders, including control over a devolved budget and all police resources in their district.

[para. 12.6]

97 There should be a slimmer structure at police headquarters – one that reflects the shift of focus

towards community policing and the delegation of responsibility to district commanders, and

permits a more rigorous and strategic approach to management. There should be no more than

one Deputy Chief Constable. The number of Assistant Chief Officers should be reduced to six

from the present twelve. The position of "Deputy Assistant Chief Constable" should be deleted

forthwith. The rank of Chief Superintendent should be phased out. [para. 12.9]

98 Special Branch and Crime Branch should be brought together under the command of a single

Assistant Chief Constable. [para. 12.12]

99 There should be a substantial reduction in the number of officers engaged in security work in the

new, amalgamated command. [para. 12.13]

100 Security officers should be required to keep their district commanders well briefed on security

activities in their districts, and district commanders should be fully consulted before security

operations are undertaken in their district. [para. 12.14]

101 The support units of Special Branch should be amalgamated into the wider police service.

[para. 12.15]

102 Officers should not spend such long periods in security work as has been common in the past.

[para 12.16]

103 The future police service should not include a Full Time Reserve. [para. 12.17]

104 There should be an enlarged Part Time Reserve of up to 2,500 officers, the additional recruits to

come from those areas in which there are currently very few reservists or none at all. [para. 12.18]

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Size of the Police Service

105 Provided the peace process does not collapse and the security situation does not deteriorate

significantly from the situation pertaining at present, the approximate size of the police service

over the next ten years should be 7,500 full time officers. [para. 13.9]

106 The early retirement or severance package offered to regular officers and full time reservists aged

50 or above should include a generous lump sum payment according to length of service, pension

enhancement of up to five years, early payment of pension commutation entitlement and

payment in lieu of pension until pensionable age is reached. Full time reservists should be treated

as far as possible in the same way as regular officers. [para. 13.12]

107 Regular officers with more than five years’ service and all full time reservists, leaving the police

service before the age of 50, should receive a substantial lump sum payment. [para. 13.13]

108 The Training and Employment Agency should develop measures for police officers (and civilians)

seeking other employment, in consultation with police management and the staff associations. The

Police Retraining and Rehabilitation Trust should have a role in this programme, and should have

enhanced staffing and funding to enable it to deal with a substantially larger workload. [para. 13.17]

109 Police recruiting agencies in Great Britain should take full account of the policing experience of

former RUC reservists in considering applications for employment in police services in Great

Britain. [para. 13.19]

110 The British government should offer former reservists the opportunity to participate in British

policing contingents in United Nations peacekeeping operations. [para. 13.19]

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Composition and Recruitment of the Police Service

111 The Northern Ireland Civil Service management should facilitate transfers of civilian members of

the police service to other Northern Ireland departments and should cooperate with the Policing

Board and the Chief Constable in achieving a balanced and representative civilian workforce.

[para. 14.16]

112 Every effort should be made to ensure that the composition of the staff of the Policing Board, the

NIO Police Division (or any successor body), and the office of the Police Ombudsman should be

broadly reflective of the population of Northern Ireland as a whole, particularly in terms of

political/religious tradition and gender. [para. 14.17]

113 All community leaders, including political party leaders and local councillors, bishops and priests,

schoolteachers and sports authorities, should take steps to remove all discouragements to

members of their communities applying to join the police, and make it a priority to encourage

them to apply. [para. 15.2]

114 The Gaelic Athletic Association should repeal its rule 21, which prohibits members of the police

in Northern Ireland from being members of the Association. [para. 15.2]

115 Liaison should be established between all schools and universities and the police service in

Northern Ireland immediately, and work experience attachments and familiarisation days should

be organized with active support and encouragement from community leaders and teachers.

[para. 15.4]

116 Provided there is active support and encouragement from local political and community leaders,

pilot police cadet schemes should be set up. [para. 15.6]

117 The police should contract out the recruitment of both police officers and civilians into the police

service. There should be lay involvement, including community representatives, on recruitment

panels. [para. 15.7]

118 The recruitment agency should advertise imaginatively and persistently, particularly in places

likely to reach groups who are under-represented in the police. [para. 15.8]

119 The agency should advertise beyond Northern Ireland, in the rest of the United Kingdom and in

the Republic of Ireland. [para. 15.8]

120 All candidates for the police service should continue to be required to reach a specified standard

of merit in the selection procedure. Candidates reaching this standard should then enter a pool

from which the required number of recruits can be drawn. [para. 15.9]

121 An equal number of Protestants and Catholics should be drawn from the pool of qualified

candidates. [para. 15.10]

122 Priority should be given to creating opportunities for part time working and job-sharing, both for

police officers and police service civilians, and career breaks should be introduced. [para. 15.11]

123 Child care facilities should be introduced where practicable, or child care vouchers and flexible

shift arrangements offered. [para. 15.11]

124 The recruitment process should be reduced to no more than six months. [para. 15.12]

125 Young people should not be automatically disqualified from entry into the police service for

relatively minor criminal offences, particularly if they have since had a number of years without

further transgressions. The criteria on this aspect of eligibility should be the same as those in the

rest of the United Kingdom. There should be a procedure for appeal to the Police Ombudsman

against disqualification of candidates. [para. 15.13]

126 All officers – those now in service as well as all future recruits – should be obliged to register their

interests and associations. The register should be held both by the police service and by the Police

Ombudsman. [para. 15.16]

127 The recruitment agency should seek to identify Northern Ireland Catholic officers in other police

services, including the Garda Siochana, contact them and encourage them – particularly those in

more senior ranks – to apply for positions in the Northern Ireland police. [para. 15.17]

128 Lateral entry of experienced officers from other police services, and secondments or recruitments

from non-police organizations should be actively encouraged. [para. 15.18]

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Training, Education and Development

129 A training, education and development strategy should be put in place, both for recruit training

and for in-service training, which is linked to the aims of this report and to the objectives and

priorities set out in the policing plans. These plans should incorporate training and development

requirements. [para. 16.4]

130 A total training and development budget should be established, covering all aspects of training,

and this should be safeguarded against transfers to other sub-heads. [para. 16.5]

131 The Northern Ireland police should have a new purpose-built police college and the funding for

it should be found in the next public spending round. [para. 16.6]

132 There should be service level agreements between police districts/departments and the police

Training Branch setting out what the Branch is expected to deliver to the district or department

concerned. [para. 16.8]

133 There should be a high degree of civilian input into the recruit training programme. The director

of the training centre (and the new college when this is opened) should have both academic

qualifications and management expertise. Civilian instructors should be employed, or brought in

as necessary to conduct as many elements of the training programme as possible. Some modules

of recruit training should be contracted out to universities and delivered on university premises,

ideally together with non-police students. [para. 16.10]

134 Civilian recruits to the police service should also attend the police college, and do some of their

training together with police officer recruits. [para. 16.11]

135 Recruits who do not already have degrees should be encouraged to acquire appropriate academic

qualifications during the first two years of their career. Encouragement should be given to those

officers who wish to go on to study for further relevant qualifications. [para. 16.12]

136 Attestation as a police officer should take place only upon successful completion of the

recruit training course. A sufficiently rigorous standard should be required for success in

that course; and completion of the course should be marked by a graduation ceremony.

[para. 16.13]

137 The hours spent on drill should be considerably reduced. [para. 16.14]

138 Problem-solving and partnership approaches should be central to the recruit training course, and

scenario exercises should be further developed as training tools. [para. 16.16]

139 Community awareness training for police recruits should be developed to include representatives

of all the main political and religious traditions in Northern Ireland. Community awareness

should not be seen as a stand-alone element of recruit training; it should be integrated into all

aspects of training. [para. 16.17]

140 The Northern Ireland police should introduce a comprehensive tutor officer scheme. Tutor

officers should be carefully selected, according to their commitment and adaptability to the new

style of policing, and trained. [para. 16.18]

141 Every member of the police service should have, as soon as possible, a course on the impact on

policing of the new constitutional arrangements for Northern Ireland, the new policing

arrangements set out in this report, and the reforms of the criminal justice system. [para. 16.20]

142 As a matter of priority, all members of the police service should be instructed in the implications

for policing of the Human Rights Act 1998, and the wider context of the European Convention

on Human Rights and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. [para. 16.21]

143 All police managers should have management training, as appropriate, and every manager

should at some stage of his/her career do a management course in a non-police environment, such

as a business school or university. Use should be made of management workshops, so that

managers can discuss and develop with each other how best to reshape the police organization.

[para. 16.22]

144 Every officer and civilian in the service should undergo adequate training in information

technology. [para. 16.23]

145 Opportunities should be taken for joint training with civilian analysts, and members of other

police services. [para. 16.23]

146 The Northern Ireland police should draw on the success of neighbourhood policing in such places

as the Markets area of Belfast in developing a neighbourhood policing training programme for

all members of the police service. Standard training for neighbourhood officers should include

modules on such community problems as domestic violence, child abuse, rape, drugs and youth

issues and this training should be updated as necessary. [para. 16.24]

147 The training curricula for the police service should be publicly available, and easily accessible,

eg. on the Internet. [para. 16.25]

148 Some training sessions should be open to members of the public to attend, upon application,

priority being given to members of the Policing Board or District Policing Partnership Boards, Lay

Visitors, or other bodies, statutory or non-governmental, involved in working with the police.

[para. 16.26]

149 The new police college should offer a pilot citizens course, to assess demand in Northern Ireland.

[para. 16.26]

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Culture, Ethos and Symbols

150 While the Royal Ulster Constabulary should not be disbanded, it should henceforth be named the

Northern Ireland Police Service. [para. 17.6]

151 The Northern Ireland Police Service should adopt a new badge and symbols which are entirely

free from any association with either the British or Irish states. [para. 17.6]

152 The Union flag should no longer be flown from police buildings. [para. 17.6]

153 On those occasions on which it is appropriate to fly a flag on police buildings, the flag flown

should be that of the Northern Ireland Police Service and it, too, should be free from associations

with the British or Irish states. [para. 17.6]

154 The colour of the current police uniform should be retained, but a new, more practical style of

uniform should be provided to police officers. [para. 17.7]

155 Police memorials in police buildings should remain as they are and where they are. [para. 17.8]

156 The maintenance of a neutral working environment should become an assessed management

responsibility at all levels of management. [para. 17.9]

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Cooperation with other Police Services

157 The Northern Ireland police and the Garda Siochana should have written protocols covering key

aspects of cooperation. [para. 18.7]

158 The present pattern of meetings between the police services in Northern Ireland and the Republic

should be enhanced by an annual conference, designed to drive forward cooperation in areas of

common concern. [para. 18.8]

159 There should be a programme of long-term personnel exchanges, such as fixed-term

secondments, between the Northern Ireland police and the Garda, in specialist fields where

cooperation between the two services is most needed, such as drugs, and in areas such as training.

[para. 18.10]

160 Consideration should be given to posting liaison officers from each service to the central

headquarters and/or border area headquarters of the other. [para. 18.10]

161 There should be structured cooperation between the two police services in training. [para. 18.11]

162 There should be joint disaster planning between the Northern Ireland police and the Garda

Siochana and the plans should be tested by regular joint exercises. [para. 18.12]

163 Consideration should be given to establishing a provision for an immediate exchange of officers

and pooling of investigative teams after major incidents with a substantial cross-border

dimension, akin to the arrangements which exist between Kent and the police services of France

and Belgium. [para. 18.13]

164 Every effort should be made to ensure that fast, effective and reliable communications are

established between the Garda and the Northern Ireland police both through improved radio

links and through compatible IT systems. [para. 18.14]

165 Joint database development should be pursued as a matter of priority in all the main areas of

cross-border criminality, such as drugs, smuggling, vehicle theft and terrorism. [para. 18.15]

166 A determined effort should be made to develop exchanges, and long-term secondments, between

the Northern Ireland police and police services in Great Britain. [para. 18.16]

167 There should be training exchanges and some joint training between the Northern Ireland police

and police services in Great Britain. [para. 18.17]

168 Consideration should be given to structured links between the four principal police training

establishments in the British Isles, namely Bramshill (England), Templemore (Republic of

Ireland), Tulliallan (Scotland) and Garnerville or the proposed new police college in Northern

Ireland. [para. 18.17]

169 International training exchanges should be further developed, focussing in particular on matters

where the police in Northern Ireland need overseas police cooperation and on best practice

developments in policing worldwide. There should be cooperation with other police services in

the field of research. [para. 18.18]

170 The police should develop opportunities to provide more training for overseas police services in

their areas of excellence. [para. 18.19]

171 The Northern Ireland police should be ready to participate in future United Nations peace-keeping

operations. [para. 18.20]

172 An eminent person, from a country other than the United Kingdom or Ireland, should be

appointed as soon as possible as an oversight commissioner with responsibility for supervising the

implementation of our recommendations. [para. 19.4]

173 The government, the police service, and the Policing Board (and DPPBs) should provide the

oversight commissioner with objectives (with timetables) covering their own responsibilities, and

should report on the progress achieved at the periodic review meetings, and account for any

failures to achieve objectives. [para. 19.5]

174 The commissioner should in turn report publicly after each review meeting on the progress

achieved, together with his or her observations on the extent to which any failures or delays are

the responsibility of the policing institutions themselves or due to matters beyond their control.

[para. 19.5]

175 The oversight commissioner should be appointed for a term of five years. [para. 19.6]

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