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International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY); International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR); planned tribunal in Sierra Leone.
ICTR: $79m (budget for 2000)
ICTY: $95.9m (budget for 2000)
Overview Mechanisms The record
Ever since the Nuremberg trials of Nazi war criminals, the UN has envisaged the creation of an International Criminal Court (ICC) to try the gravest crimes against humanity. The need for international criminal justice has been highlighted recently by cases such as that of Chile's General Augusto Pinochet, Sierra Leone's Foday Sankoh and the military generals in Indonesia.

OverviewMechanismsThe record
The legal framework for trying international war criminals has been put into place with various human rights treaties: namely, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Genocide Convention and the Geneva Convention. War crimes tribunals have been set up on an ad hoc basis by the UN Security Council, for Rwanda (in Arusha, Tanzania) and Yugoslavia (in the Hague, the Netherlands). The ICC would be based at the Hague. It would only act when national courts are unable or unwilling to do so, and it would not have retrospective jurisdiction. The maximum sentence available to the UN court is life imprisonment.
OverviewMechanismsThe record
The International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda was set up by the UN in response to the slaughter of an estimated 800,000 members of the Tutsi minority tribe in Rwanda in 1994. However Rwanda suspended relations with the tribunal after it ordered genocide suspect Jean-Bosco Barayagwiza to be freed. Although the Appeals Court later reversed its decision, it has been criticised for slow progress.
The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia has also been accused of failing to bring known war criminals to justice. Neither Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic nor Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and General Ratko Mladic have been arrested. About 30 indictees are awaiting trial, and any arrest now will take up to two years before the case comes to trial.
In July 1998, 160 countries decided to establish a permanent International Criminal Court. It will enter into force after 60 countries have ratified it. But the court is still opposed by the US because of fears that its soldiers could fall victim to politically motivated persecutions.