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Payments to the EU Chart

Givers and takers chart

The amount each country pays to the EU depends on its GDP, and how much revenue it raises from VAT, customs duties and agricultural levies on imports from outside the EU.

Portugal, Greece, Ireland and Spain all receive more than twice as much as they pay in.

Germany is by far the biggest net contributor, along with some of the smaller, rich countries like the Netherlands, Sweden and Austria.

France and Italy's budget contributions have been cushioned by subsidies for their large agricultural sectors, while the UK's net contributions have been lessened by its special budget rebate.

Belgium and Luxembourg appear to be net receivers, but this mainly reflects the cost of hosting various EU institutions.

The EU has agreed a limit of 1.2% of GDP as the maximum that countries will be asked to contribute to future budgets.

That will limit the growth of expenditure and may put pressure on the EU to make further reforms of its farm subsidies - something the rest of world is pressing it to do.

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