Central Kalimantan has recently been the scene of some of the worst ethnic violence in the entire republic, with Muslim settlers being hacked to death by gangs of indigenous Dayaks and Malays. Immigrants from Madura have been arriving in Kalimantan, the Indonesian part of Borneo, since the 1930s.
At least 1,000 people were killed in West Kalimantan in 1997, in clashes blamed on ethnic resentment and the economic marginalisation of Dayaks by the Madurese minority. Another 200 people died in clashes last year in which Madurese victims were frequently decapitated.
The local authorities have proposed resiting 30,000 Madurese refugees to an island off Borneo, saying it is too dangerous for them to go back to their homes. Dayaks account for about 40% of West Kalimantanís population of 3.5 million. The Madurese number less than 100,000.