Scientists have published descriptions of a range of jelly-like animals encountered during submersible dives into the deep oceans of the Arctic. This deep red-coloured Crossota norvegica was observed as deep as 2,600m.
A jellyfish new to science, which will be formally described later this year. The small blue jelly, a type of Narcomedusae, lives in a narrow depth range of 1,400m to 2,000m.
A large, bright orange Aulacoctena species, about 15cm long, was observed on six occasions. The striking orange colouration appears to come from their diet of bright orange worms.
Chrysaora melanaster is one of the largest Arctic jellies, living in the top layer of water at depths of between 20m and 40m, where the temperature remains nearly constant.
This red-lipped cydippid ctenophore was a common deep-water species between 1,300 to 2,400m. It still awaits description.
Crossota millsae is a brilliant red and purple jellyfish also found off California and Hawaii. This specimen was collected near the bottom of the Arctic Ocean in 2,000m of water.
Benthocodon hyalinus is a small jellyfish previously known from Antarctica and perhaps California.
The large colonial physonect siphonophore Marrus orthocanna. When stretched out, this animal would be over 3m long.
The "sea angel" Clione limacina is a naked pteropod, a shell-less snail, and was found in the surface waters, down to 350m. This species also lives in the Antarctic Ocean. Pictures courtesy of Kevin Raskoff.
What are these?