The Scottish government called for powers over airguns, drink driving and speed limits to be transferred to Holyrood under proposals from the Calman Commission review of devolution on 9 December 2009.
Culture minister Fiona Hyslop said this could happen before the general election using existing legislation.
But Scottish Secretary Jim Murphy said a new Scotland Bill would be published after the general election if Labour was returned to power, and would become law before the Scottish elections in 2015.
Labour MSP Pauline McNeill tabled an amendment to Ms Hyslop's motion, calling for devolution to be strengthened and accused the SNP of cherry picking powers from the Calman Commission.
However at decision time her amendment fell and the government motion was passed, after MSPs voted narrowly in its favour.