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2005年04月21日 格林尼治標準時間07:32北京時間 15:32發表
英國大選術語(中英文對照)

恁鏍婓恁き奻赫奻暮瘍
Absentee ballot :缺席選票
A vote cast by someone who cannot reach a polling station. Can be postal or by proxy (see below). 選民無法親自前往投票站時郵寄或者請人代投自己的選票。

Agent:競選經理
A person who represents candidates in their dealings with the electoral authorities and runs their campaigns. 代表候選人與選舉機構打交道以及組織競選活動的個人。

Ballot:投票
Another term for vote. 與vote意義相同

Ballot box :票箱
Sealed box with a slit in the lid, into which voters place their ballot papers. 密封的箱子,蓋子上有一個事先開好的小口。選民將標好的選票投入其中。

Ballot paper:選票
Paper containing a list of all candidates standing in a constituency. Voters mark their choice with a cross. 上面印有候選人名字,選民在自己選中的候選人名字旁邊劃X。

Battlebus:戰車
A vehicle used by a party to transport its leader or other senior figures around the country to rallies or to meet the people. 競選過程中政黨領袖用以周遊全國爭取選民支持的交通工具。

Boundary Commission 選區邊界委員會
The body which reviews constituencies every 8-12 years to make sure they represent current population patterns. 根據人口分佈、每8至12年重新劃定選區分界的專門機構。

By-election:補選
An election held between general elections, usually because the sitting MP has died or resigned. 兩次大選之間舉行的選舉,通常是因為原議員辭職或去世。

Cabinet:內閣
The group of senior ministers at the head of the government. 由數名高級部長組成,是政府的最高權力機構。

Candidate:候選人
Someone putting themselves up for election. Once Parliament has been dissolved, there are no MPs, only candidates. 代表某一政黨競選國會議員席位的人。議會解散時,"議員"不復存在,只有候選人。

Canvassing:游說
During a campaign, active supporters of a party ask voters who they will vote for and try to drum up support for their own candidates. 競選過程中,政黨的支持者詢問選民的投票意向、爭取選民對自己政黨候選人的支持。

Coalition:聯合政府
When two or more parties govern together, when neither has an overall majority. Coalitions are very rare in Westminster; the last was the administration led by Winston Churchill during the Second World War. The Liberals propped up the last years of the Labour Government of 1974-9, but did not actually take a part in its running. 兩個或兩個以上沒有多數席位的政黨聯合組成的政府。上一個聯合政府是在第二次世界大戰期間丘吉爾擔任首相時組成的政府。1974-1979年間,自民黨曾經支持工黨組成聯合政府,但自民黨並未參與執政。

Constituency:選區
The geographical unit which elects a single MP. There will be 646 in the UK after the election. 選舉產生一名國會議員的地理區域。本次大選共有646個選區選出相同數量的議員。

Deposit:定金
£500 paid by candidates or their parties to be allowed to stand. It is returned if the candidate wins 5% or more of the votes cast. 候選人需要交納500英鎊的定金才可以參選。候選人只有在獲得5%以上選票的情況下才可拿回定金。

Dissolution of Parliament :解散議會
The act of ending a Parliament. 大選前一個月解散議會。

Election expenses :競選經費
Candidates are only allowed to spend a limited amount of money on their individual campaign. Accounts must be submitted after the poll proving they did not exceed this limit. 候選人只可以花費一定數量的經費用於個人的競選活動。投票結束後必須向有關單位提交賬目,以證實自己沒有超支。

Electoral register :選民登記
A list of all those in a constituency entitled to vote. Also known as electoral roll. 所有有投票權的選民的名單,也可以被稱作electoral roll。

Exit poll :投票站民意調查
A poll asking people how they have voted just after they have left the polling station. 選民投票之後離開投票站時,有關單位詢問他們的投票意向並據此預測出選舉結果。

First past the post :簡單多數票當選
Term used to describe the UK's parliamentary election system. It means a candidate only needs a simple majority - more votes than his or her rivals - to be elected. 英國下院選舉的一個原則。每一個選民只能投一票給一個候選人,在這個選區內獲得票數最多的候選人當選。

Franchise :選舉權
The right to vote. Now available to those over 18 and on the electoral register. 選舉權。年滿18歲、在選民登記冊註冊的人享有投票權。

General election :大選
Election at which all seats in the House of Commons are contested. General elections must take place at least every five years, but are usually held after about four years on a date chosen by the prime minister. 議會全部席位都將重新選出。大選最長間隔每五年舉行一次。但通常情況下都是每四年舉行一次。大選日期由首相決定。

Hung parliament:無多數議會
If after an election no party has an overall majority, then parliament is said to be "hung". The main parties will then try to form a coalition with one or more of the minor parties. 如果大選之後出現沒有任何一個政黨獲得議會中絕對多數席位的情況,這時議會被稱作"無多數議會"。主要政黨會尋求其他小黨的支持組成聯合政府。

Landslide :壓倒優勢
The name given to an election which one party wins by a very large margin. Famous landslides in UK elections include Labour's victory in 1945, the Conservative win in 1983 and the election which brought Tony Blair to power in 1997. 指的是某一政黨在大選中以明顯優勢獲得勝利。近代出現"壓倒性優勢"的幾次大選包括1945年工黨獲勝、1983年保守黨獲勝以及1997年現任首相布萊爾率領工黨獲勝。

Manifesto :競選綱領
A public declaration of a party's ideas and policies, usually printed during the campaign. Once in power, a government is often judged by how many of its manifesto promises it manages to deliver. 政黨的方針以及政策,通常在競選過程中出版。一旦當選,人們通常會以執政黨兌現了多少競選綱領中的承諾來判斷政府的業績。

Marginal constituencies:優勢微弱選區
Seats where the gap between the two or more leading parties is relatively small. Often regarded as less than a 10% margin ie requiring a swing of 5% or less, though very dependent on prevailing political conditions. 指的是特定選區內兩個或兩個以上政黨之間的選民支持率相差無幾。一般情況下指的是某一方的優勢小於10%,也就是說,5%或者低於5%的選民改變投票意向即可左右大選結果。優勢微弱選區的選舉結果在相當大的程度上取決於總體政局。

Minority government :少數黨政府
A government formed by a party which does not have an absolute majority in the House of Commons. Harold Wilson led a Labour minority government between February and October 1974. 由在議會下院不佔絕對多數席位的政黨組成的政府。1974年2月到10月之間工黨首相威爾遜領導的就是"少數黨政府"。

MP Member of Parliament :國會議員(簡稱MP)
Strictly this includes members of the House of Lords, but in practice means only members of the House of Commons. When an election is called Parliament is dissolved and there are no more MPs until it assembles again. 嚴格來講,議員也包括上院議員,但實際上說起議員一般指的只是下院議員。競選開始之後,議會解散,議員也就不復存在了,直到大選之後議會重新召集為止。

Nomination papers:提名單
A candidate must be nominated on these documents by 10 voters living in the constituency. 候選人必須獲得選區內至少10名選民的提名支持。

Notional result :理論結果
After major boundary changes like that in 1997, the main broadcasters agree how altered constituencies were likely to have voted in the previous election. This gives them a base against which to compare the new results. 在大規模重新劃定選區邊界之後,新選區內的選民在上一次大選中可能會如何投票呢?各主要廣播單位就此達成的共識被稱為"理論結果"。這個數字可以用作與最新大選結果加以比較的基礎。

Number 10 :10號
The official residence in Downing Street of the British prime minister since the 18th century. Number 10 and Downing Street both serve as terms to describe the prime minister and his or her inner circle, as in "Number 10 has said that". 有時也稱唐寧街10號。自從18世紀以來,唐寧街10號一直就是首相的官邸。"10號"或者"唐寧街"都是首相府的代名詞。

Opinion poll :民意調查
A survey asking people's opinion on one or more issues. In an election campaign, the key question is usually about which party people will vote for. 就一個或多個問題調查選民的看法。在競選過程中,最重要的一個問題通常是"你將投哪一個政黨的票"。

Opposition :反對黨
The largest party not in government is known as the official opposition. It receives extra parliamentary funding in recognition of its status. 規模最大的在野黨。反對黨可以獲得追加的活動經費。

Party Election Broadcast (PEB):政黨競選廣播
Broadcasts made by the parties and transmitted on TV or radio. By agreement with the broadcasters, each party is allowed a certain number according to its election strength and number of candidates fielded. 競選過程中由各政黨製作、在電視或者電台播出的宣傳節目。根據與電視台、電台達成的協議,每一個政黨都可以獲得一定的競選廣播時段。廣播時段多少以該黨參加競選的候選人人數以及在上次大選中的的票率來決定。

Personation :假冒
The offence of impersonating someone else in order to use their vote. 冒充別人投票,是犯罪行為。

Poll :投票,大選
Another term for vote or election. 與vote或者election意義相同。

Polling clerk :投票站檢查員
The person in the polling station who checks the electoral register to verify that the voter is eligible to cast his vote and at that particular polling station. 在投票站負責監督投票的工作人員。他們根據選民登記,查驗前來投票的人是否有權、是否應該在該投票站投票。

Polling day:投票日。
Election day. 也就是大選日。

Polling station :投票站
Location where people go to cast their votes. 選民前往投票的地點。

Postal vote:郵寄投票
People unable to get to a polling station are allowed to vote by post if they apply in advance. They are also allowed a proxy vote. 無法親自前往投票站的人,經過事先申請,可以獲得郵寄投票,也可以請人代替投票。

Proportional representation :比例代表制
Systems of voting which aim to give parties the representation in a parliament justified by their level of voting support. 該制度旨在爭取在選舉中,政黨獲得的議會席位的比例與所得選票的比例相符合。

Prorogation:休會
The act of ending a session of Parliament. Performed when an election is called. 競選開始後議會解散。

Presiding officer:投票站監票官
The person responsible for ensuring the conduct of the ballot in polling stations. They have to ensure that ballot boxes are kept secure and are responsible for transferring them safely to the count. 負責監察投票站的運轉。他們必須確保票箱的安全,確保將票箱安全地運抵點票地點。

Proxy vote :代替投票
People unable to get to a polling station are allowed to appoint someone to vote on their behalf if they apply in advance. They are also allowed a postal vote. 無法親自前往投票站投票的人經過事先申請可以獲准委派別人代替投票或者以郵寄的形式投票。

Psephology :選舉學
The study of voting and voting patterns. 研究投票的學科。

Queen's Speech :女王講話
The government's legislative programme for the coming session of Parliament. Delivered by the Queen, but written by the government. 政府在下屆議會期間希望審議通過的立法項目,由政府起草,但卻由女王在議會發表講話的形式公開。

Recount :重新點票
If a result is close, any candidate may ask for a recount. The process can be repeated several times if necessary until the candidates are satisfied. The returning officer has the final say on whether a recount takes place. 如果投票結果非常接近,任何一名候選人都可以要求重新點票。必要的情況下,選票可以重新清點數次,直至所有候選人都滿意為止。選區選物官有權決定是否重新點票。

Referendum:全民公投
A binding vote of the whole country on a single issue. 全國人民就特定議題投票做出決定。

Returning officer :選務官
The official in charge of elections in each of the constituencies. 每一個選區負責選舉工作的官員。

Safe seat :安全席位
A constituency in which the holding party has a big lead to defend. Often regarded as being a margin of 15-20% or more. 擁有某選區席位的政黨佔有較大優勢,通常指該黨支持率領先對手15-20%。

Soapbox:肥皂箱子
Famously used by John Major in 1992 to address crowds of voters as he travelled around the country. 1992大選中保守黨候選人梅傑在游說全國時經常站在紙箱子上發表演講。("肥皂箱子"、大喇叭原本是自由演講者經常使用的工具,梅傑效仿據他本人講是為了給競選注入活力)

Speaker:議長
An MP elected by other members of the Commons to chair debates and deal with the running of the Commons. By tradition, an MP who is Speaker is not opposed by any of the main parties at elections. 由議員選出,主持議會辯論以及議會日常工作。大選中,其他政黨不參加他所代表席位的競選。

Spin :輿論導向
The attempt to place a favourable interpretation on an event so that people or the media will interpret it in that way. Those performing this act are known as spin doctors. 影響和爭取公眾和媒體以積極的態度詮釋某一事件。負責輿論導向工作的人被稱作"輿論導向醫生"。

Spoiled ballots :無效選票
Ballot papers which have been filled in incorrectly. The returning officer has the final say over whether any paper not marked with a single cross is valid. 選票填寫有誤。選務官有權最終決定沒有按規定畫X的選票是有效。

Swing :遊離
The transfer of votes from one party to another. The actual transfer is complicated, so usually taken to mean between the top two parties in any seat or area. 選民轉投另一個政黨的票。因為很難準確地判斷"遊離選民"轉而支持其他政黨的具體數字,因此遊離一般都只指競選某一個席位或者某一個地區內,領先的兩個政黨之間選民的投票意向變化。

Tactical voting:戰略票
This is when people vote not for the party they really support, but for another party in order to keep out a more disliked rival. 選民不是投自己支持政黨的票,而是轉投另外一個政黨的票,以阻止自己最不喜歡的政黨當選。

Target seats :目標席位
In theory, any seat that a party contests and held by a rival is one of its targets. In practice, a target seat is one that a party believes it can win and puts a lot of effort into doing so. 從理論上說,政黨參加競選的所有席位都是目標席位。但實際生活中,目標席位指的是一個政黨認為自己有贏得某一個特定席位的可能性,因此在該選區特別努力。

Tellers :監票員
Representatives of parties who wait outside polling stations and ask people for their number on the electoral roll. This is to help the parties ensure all their supporters have voted. Tellers have no official status and no-one is obliged to give them any information. 各政黨請來在投票站外詢問投票者"選民登記號"的人。這樣做的目的是為了政黨確保自己所有的支持者都參加投票。名為監票員,其實沒有任何正式權力,因此,選民不必告訴他們自己的登記號或者任何其他信息。

Turnout :投票率
The number or percentage of people eligible to vote who actually do so. 真正參加投票的人佔選民總數的比例。

West Lothian Question :西洛錫安問題
Shorthand term coined to describe a question posed by Tam Dalyell, once Labour MP for West Lothian. Mr Dalyell asks how it is right that post-devolution, Scottish MPs can vote at Westminster on matters solely to do with England, while English MPs do not have the same influence on that issue in Scotland, as it has been devolved to the Scottish Parliament. 1970年代,時任西洛錫安選區的工黨議員戴利埃爾首次提出的一個有關蘇格蘭權力下放的問題。戴利埃爾問到,分權之後,為什麼蘇格蘭議會議員仍然可以在西敏寺就英格蘭事務投票,而英格蘭議員卻不可以在分權之後的蘇格蘭議會投票。

Westminster :西敏寺
A term used to describe the hothouse of politics centred around the Palace of Westminster and its surroundings. 議會大廈所在地,英國政治活動的中心。

Writs of election:選舉令
Once Parliament has been dissolved, a writ of election is issued for each constituency formally announcing the poll. 議會解散之後,向各個選區發放的通知大選日的正式文件。



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