The Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) will study the early history of the universe.
Astronomers hope they will be able to use $2bn telescope to look at objects hidden by gas and dust that can't be seen normally.
Unlike the Hubble telescope which is in Earth orbit, this telescope will travel through deep space and send images back home.
Look back in time
Astronomers will be able to look back to a time when the Universe was a very violent place and many new stars were being born.