The little prey robots get their energy by sitting under lights and absorbing it into their solar panels. But the bigger predators get their energy from sucking the power out of their smaller rivals.
Explore distant planets
Scientists are hoping the robots will start developing 'hunting' strategies and working out escape routes to help them survive for longer.
The experiment has been set up in a special arena at the Magna Science adventure centre in Rotherham. There's a viewing room where 500 people can watch what the robots do.
Eventually, scientists hope robots can be sent to explore distant planets and be taught to do chores around the home.