Tries (five points in Union, four in League) - A try is scored when one team moves the ball down the pitch, takes it across a line called the goal line, and puts it down on the ground.
Penalties (three points in Union, two in League) and conversions (two points) - To score the points a player must kick the ball over the crossbar of the H-shaped posts. A penalty is awarded if a team breaks one of the game's laws, and if they think it is close enough, a player from the other team can choose to 'kick for goal'. A conversion is the same, but only happens after a team scores a try.
Drop goals (three points in Union, one in League) - A drop goal is like a penalty, except the ball isn't kicked from the ground, and it doesn't happen when there is a stoppage. Instead, while the ball is in possession of a player, that player can choose to drop the ball from their hands and try to kick it over the crossbar. For a drop goal to count, the ball must touch the ground just before (or at the same time as) it is kicked.