Kurds make up 20% of the Iraqi people. They are mostly Sunni Muslim, live in northern Iraq.
In 1988 Saddam attacked the Kurds using chemical weapons.
After the first Gulf War, the Kurds rose up against Saddam because they thought the Americans would help them overthrow him.
The Iraqi government crushed this attempt for freedom, and 1.5 million Kurds fled into the surrounding countries.
In the war with Iraq, the Kurds helped to capture cities in the north of Iraq, with the support of the US military.
The Turkish government is very worried about what the Kurds will do now Saddam is gone.
They think the Iraqi Kurds will try and get independence from the rest of Iraq - because that could make Kurds living in Turkey also start fighting for independence.