But some groups continued to operate. A protestant church, a bus carrying French naval engineers and the US consulate in Karachi were attacked. An American journalist Daniel Pearl was also murdered.
Musharraf faced an even bigger challenge when India threatened Pakistan over what it said was Pakistani support for political violence in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir. In turn, the Pakistani leader also used aggressive language but reduced support for the Kashmiri fighters. Fears of an all-out conflict, and possibly a nuclear exchange, eased.
India, angered by an attack on its parliament on 13 December 2001, won American and other international support for its position that its own counter-insurgency war in Kashmir was part of the wider American-led war on terrorism.
The BBC's World Affairs correspondent Mike Wooldridge explains the pressures on Pakistani leader Gerneral Musharraf
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