Italy is one of the European Union nations with the longest historical ties to the UK, and one of the biggest European nationalities.
It supplied some of the first post-war migrant workers, before the UK turned to mass migration from former British Empire colonies.
The 2001 Census data shows complex changes in the Italian profile. In some areas of Britain long associated with Italian communities there has been a decline, almost certainly down to an ageing population or retirements "back home".
But in other areas – such as some affluent parts of London or areas associated with students - there have been steep rises.