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In pictures: General Augusto Pinochet
Shock defeat

In 1980, Gen Pinochet held a controversial plebiscite to approve a new constitution banning left-wing parties from politics, increasing presidential powers, and granting him at least a further eight years in office.

An economic slump followed, prompting a wave of protests and strikes which were suppressed. In 1986, Gen Pinochet survived an assassination attempt. And in 1988, voters inflicted a shock defeat on him in another referendum intended to grant him a further eight years in office.

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