Full coverage

[an error occurred while processing this directive]
BBC News
watch One-Minute World News
Struggle for Iraq
Introduction
Click on the events below to read about Iraq's history
Saddam's rise:
1957-79
Iran-Iraq war:
1980-88
Gulf War:
1990 - 1991
Containment:
1991-2002
Second war:
2003-06
Young activist
Hardline deputy
War breaks out
Israeli bombing
Chemical warfare
Western support
Truce and debt
Kuwait invasion
Desert Storm
Scud missiles
Civilian casualties
Ground war
Iraqi ceasefire
Uprisings
After the war
No-fly zones
Oil-for-Food
Desert Fox
Inspectors barred
US-led invasion
Saddam captured
Iraq in turmoil
Trial of Saddam
SECOND WAR AND SADDAM'S DOWNFALL, 2003

In November 2002, after weeks of wrangling, the UN Security Council passed resolution 1441. It was designed to force Iraq to give up all weapons of mass destruction and threatening "serious consequences" if it did not comply. Iraq accepted the terms of the resolution and weapons inspections resumed.

In early February 2003, US Secretary of State Colin Powell told the UN that inspections were not achieving the disarmament of Iraq. The US and UK pressed for a new resolution authorising military action against Iraq. France and Russia opposed this resolution, and threatened to veto it.

The resolution never came to a vote and early on 20 March, the US-led campaign to topple Iraqi Saddam Hussein began.

President George W Bush addressed the American nation and vowed to "disarm Iraq and to free its people".

The beginning of the campaign drew a barrage of criticism from world leaders, including those of France, Russia and China. There were also massive public demonstrations against the war in major cities across the globe.

The first aerial attack on Baghdad was on a much smaller scale than had been expected for the opening of the conflict. It was thought to have been mounted at short notice when US military planners spotted an opportunity to target five members of the Iraqi regime, including Saddam Hussein and his sons, Uday and Qusay.

Ground forces invaded from Kuwait, with UK troops moving to secure key southern towns and US forces moving on towards Baghdad. They did, though, meet pockets of resistance from Iraqi troops.

As troops advanced on Baghdad, Saddam Hussein issued statements of defiance, while his officials warned that the capital would be their graveyard.

In early April, US forces reached the outskirts of Baghdad and took the international airport. Shortly after, the government of Saddam Hussein lost control over the capital. US tanks were able to drive unhindered into public squares in the centre of Baghdad and in a symbolic moment, an American armoured vehicle helped a crowd of cheering Iraqis pull down a huge statue of Saddam Hussein. The hunt was then on for the Iraqi leader, whose whereabouts remained a mystery.

President Bush declared an end to major combat operations on 1 May.

Statue of Saddam Hussein toppled in Baghdad, April 2003
The toppling of Saddam
Hussein's statue was a highly
symbolic moment

Coalition soldiers

Hundreds of thousands of coalition
soldiers were sent to the Gulf to
change the regime in Iraq

PRODUCTS AND SERVICES

Americas Africa Europe Middle East South Asia Asia Pacific