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Pollution

Soviet nuclear weapons testing and uranium mining have contaminated many sites with radioactivity.

Intense irrigation for cotton production has damaged large swathes of land, especially near the Aral Sea which has shrunk 90% in 40 years.

Salt deposits and agricultural chemical residues form toxic dust which is damaging locals' health.

Obsolete industrial plants, pockets of air pollution, chemical and biological weapons test sites and damage from oil production are additional concerns.

Map showing areas affected by shrinkage of the Aral Sea and land degradation; four former nuclear weapons test sites, seven former biological/chemical weapons sites, 13 radioactive waste sites and three nuclear reactors.

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