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Oil and gas

Kazakhstan has the second largest oil and gas reserves in the region, behind Russia. Its oil production has more than doubled since 1999 and the government hopes to triple this by 2015.

The 2001 opening of a pipeline from western Kazakhstan to the Black Sea helped raise export levels. A pipeline to China is now being built.

Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have substantial gas reserves, but lack of pipeline capacity limits exports.

Major export markets are Russia (Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan) and the Ukraine and Iran (Turkmenistan).

Map showing locations of oil and gas fields and pipelines in Central Asia. The main oil fields are in West Kazakhstan; Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan all have gas fields.

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