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Revolution and civil war plunge Russia, Germany and the remains of Austria-Hungary into chaos in the years that follow World War I.

The Europe that emerges from this period is radically different: Russia and Germany have shrunk dramatically; the Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires have disappeared; and a host of smaller states have appeared.

The Russian revolution of 1917 leads to the creation of the Soviet Union, a self-declared revolutionary socialist state.

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