Research into protecting communities with better flood warnings has been announced by the Scottish government.
The £60,000 project will be carried out by Aberdeen's Macaulay Land Use Research.
It will study the best way of getting flood warnings to the public, local authorities and emergency services.
Aberdeenshire and Glasgow communities are likely to be used as case studies. Severe recent flooding has hit areas such as Elgin and Stonehaven.
Environment Minister Roseanna Cunningham said: "As we have seen again all too recently, flooding can have distressing consequences for families and businesses.
"It is crucial that when floods are forecast, warning information is relayed quickly and with the greatest effect.
"This new research will help us identify additional ways of improving flood warning systems."
Phillipa Booth, the Macaulay's project co-ordinator, said: "We want to determine how communities respond to flood warnings and determine the best ways to communicate with all parties to relay the risks of future flooding events."