James Matthew Barrie was born at Kirriemuir
Genealogy experts have said that putting the 1881 census online will enable family historians to more easily trace their roots.
The census charts the lives of the 3.7 million people living in Scotland on 3 April, 1881.
It includes the name, age, address and occupation of every citizen.
The census records Edinburgh university student JM Barrie, who later wrote Peter Pan, and James Keir Hardie, the founder of the Scottish Labour Party.
1881 saw a treaty signed ending the first Boer War, Alexander Fleming, the inventor of penicillin, was born in Ayrshire and Queens Park triumph over Dumbarton in the Scottish Cup Final.
Genealogy said the digitised versions of the original documents could also provide a keepsake of their ancestors' lives.
Duncan Macniven, Registrar General for Scotland, said: "The images of the original 1881 Scottish census records will help bring people's family history to life, offering visual evidence of our ancestors' lives recorded in history.
"Having access to images of the records, as well as the transcribed data, enhances the genealogy experience for family historians and helps connect today's generations with the past."