The first minister said it was time to replace the "unfair" council tax with an alternative, based on ability to pay, which he said would lift 85,000 people from poverty and save the average Scottish family between £350 and £535 per year.
The local income tax legislation is likely to be introduced in 2009 - but there is no certainty it would get as far as a Holyrood vote before the next summer recess.
"I have no doubt Scotland will judge harshly any MSP who votes to keep the council tax in the face of the overwhelming benefit that would flow to millions of ordinary Scots," added the first minister.
Labour attacked the local income tax plan, which currently lacks enough parliamentary support to be passed, claiming it faced "near universal opposition".
Alex Salmond on abolishing council tax
The Holyrood government's other legislative plans included cutting emissions by 80% by 2050, a presumption against the closure of rural schools and a move to hold Scottish council and parliamentary elections on different dates, in the wake of last May's election night fiasco.
But acting Scottish Labour leader Cathy Jamieson said the council tax alternative was discredited, adding: "The SNP's tax plans will simultaneously make Scotland the highest taxed part of the UK and damage local services.
"The first minister should stop pretending that he knows better and dump the local income tax now."
Conservative leader Annabel Goldie also slammed the government's tax plans and said they had been "comprehensively rubbished and ridiculed".
Our strategic objectives [are] building a Scotland that is safer, stronger, greener, healthier, smarter, wealthier and fairer
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