Edinburgh has seen the largest rise in property prices in Scotland over the last 10 years, according to a study.
Property prices rose by more than 100% in all Scottish cities
The analysis by the Bank of Scotland said the cost had increased by 173% to £2,218 per square metre.
Prices had also risen by 133% in Glasgow and 132% in Inverness over the last decade.
Dundee, Aberdeen and Stirling have also seen increases of more than 100% since 1996, with prices soaring by 26% in Aberdeen in a single year.
Martin Ellis, chief economist at Bank of Scotland, said: "Aberdeen has one of the highest increases per square metre over a one-year period across the UK, only falling behind Armagh, Newry, Belfast, Lisburn and Londonderry."
Edinburgh is the only Scottish city to feature in the UK's top 10 most expensive cities.
Meanwhile, research by housing charity Shelter said it had become 65% harder for first time buyers to get onto the property ladder in Scotland over the last decade.
Its ROOF magazine assessed housing affordability by comparing mortgage costs against household's incomes.
Shelter Scotland director Archie Stoddart said: "These figures show that the gulf between those who can afford to buy and those who can't is widening at an alarming rate.
"For first time buyers, the housing ladder is becoming a housing tightrope.
"Buying a home is becoming an ever-more distant dream for first time buyers and as housing becomes increasingly unaffordable, we fear that repossessions are likely to spiral and more families will face the nightmare of homelessness."
A Shelter campaign has called for 30,000 new rentable homes to be built in Scotland.
People are urged to show their support for the "It's time to get a move in" initiative by displaying a charity sticker on their front door.
Virtual stickers are also available to be added to websites, blogs or MySpace pages.